Presentation on theme: "U8LG2 – MESOAMERICA MAYANS, AZTECS, INCAS. MAYAN CIVILIZATION Located on the Yucatan Peninsula. Flourished between A.D. 300 and 900. It was one of the."— Presentation transcript:
MAYAN CIVILIZATION Located on the Yucatan Peninsula. Flourished between A.D. 300 and 900. It was one of the most sophisticated civilizations in the Americas. Built splendid temples & pyramids and developed a complicated calendar. Came to include Central America southern Mexico. Decline include invasion, internal revolt or a natural disaster such as volcanic eruption.
POLITICAL & SOCIAL STRUCTURES Mayan civilization was composed of city-states, each governed by a hereditary ruling class. 1). Rulers claimed to be descended from the Gods. Mayan society included nobles, scribes, townspeople, officials, & merchants. Believe their life was in the hands of divine powers. The Maya practiced human sacrifice as a way to appease the gods.
WRITING & CALENDAR Mayans created a writing system based on pictures. Two different system for measuring time A). One based on a solar calendar of 365 days, divided into 18 months of 20 days each, with extra 5 days at the end. B). Based on a sacred calendar of 260 days divided into 13 weeks of 20 days.
Aztec Civilization Migrated to Mexico around A.D. 1200 and was conquered by the Spaniards in the 1500s. Had an advanced form of architectural techniques The kingdom was a collection of semi- independent territories governed by local lords. Power was vested in the hands of a monarch that was assisted by a council of lords & government officials (a form of social classes).
Aztec Social & Religious Structure Women were not equal to men but were allowed to own & inherit property & enter into contracts. Also permitted to become priestesses. Aztecs believed in many gods (polytheistic). Aztec religion was based on a belief in an unending struggle between the forces of good & evil throughout the universe.
Aztec Destruction In 1519, a Spanish force under the command of Hernan Cortes landed at Veracruz. Tension arose between Spaniards & Aztecs. Spanish took Montezuma (king) hostage, the local population revolted in 1520 and drove the Spaniards out. Without natural immunity from European diseases many Aztec became sick & died. Cortes returned after 4 months & defeated the Aztecs.
Inca Civilization In the late 1300s, the Inca were only a small community in the area of Cuzco, a city located in the mountains of Peru. The incas adapted to their environment by building a network of roads through these mountains.
Inca Political Inca state was built on war, so all young men were required to serve in the Inca army. A noble of high rank was sent out to govern each new territory. Local leaders could keep their post as long as they were loyal to the Inca ruler. Pachacuti (Inca ruler) divided empire into 4 quarters each ruled by a governor. The quarters were divided into provinces each ruled by a governor.
Inca Culture Inca had no writing system but instead kept records using a system of knotted strings called the quipu. The Inca’s (along with the Aztecs) adopted creative farming techniques to be used to get the most out of their land.
Inca Destruction In 1531, Francisco Pizarro landed of the Pacific coast of South America. Incan Empire experienced an epidemic of smallpox. (Killed the Emperor) Pizarro marched on Cuzco & captured the capital. By 1535, Pizarro established a new capital a Lima.