4 Type of GovernmentAztec Empire – A single ruler, an emperor who was chosen by a council of nobles and priests.Maya – Divided into city-states with a ruling chief for each city-state.Inca – A “sapa inca” who was supreme ruler, owned everything and was divine.
5 ReligionAztec – Polytheistic, priests were powerful; many human sacrifices to the god Quetzalcoatl who was the sun god. His giant pyramid towered above central Tenochtitlan.
6 ReligionMaya – Polytheistic; priests held power because only they could perform important ceremonies.Priests held sacrifices on platforms of high temples while ordinary people watched from below.
7 Religion Inca – Polytheistic The Ruler was also the chief religious leader.Polytheistic; belief in many nature spiritsA powerful class of priests served the godsChosen Women – special attendants had honored role in Incan ritual.
8 AgricultureAztec – Farmed on “floating islands” or chinampas to create more farmlandGrew corn, squash and beansUsed canals and aqueducts for transportation.
9 AgricultureMaya – slash and burn method: Cut down tropical forest; burn brush and spread ashes for fertilizer.Grew corn, beans, squash, fruit trees, flowersIncas – Used irrigation; grew 700 kinds of potatoes on mountain slopes; terrace farming.Terrace farming because of mountains.
10 AdvancesAztecs – Had a calendar – excelled in math and astronomy; used herbs for medicine; priests recorded laws and history; extensive trade networksMaya – Had a number system and zero; a calendar; bark books and used hieroglyphic writing
11 Advances Incas – Great Road System through the mountains Roads helped army and messengersPottery/WeavingQuipus-knotted ropes for record keepingCalendarMedicinal Herbs
12 Buildings/Cities Aztec – Tenochtitlan was the capital city. It was located in Lake Texcoco and was connected to the mainland by causeways.The city contained temples, palaces, zoos and floating gardens. It was the center of the empire
14 Buildings/Cities Inca - Ceremonial Centers Stone building (can’t get a knife through the stones) and engineeringCuzco - capitalMachu PicchuMachu Picchu
15 Social Classes Aztec Maya Inca Emperor Priests Nobles Warriors Commoners/FarmersSlaves (Criminals or POWs)Ruling Chief of EACH CITYNobles (military leaders, directed public works and collected taxes)(Sometimes women ruled)Ruler/PriestNobles/Local ChiefsGovernment Officials (kept records of taxes)Strict regulations on job assignments and marriages
16 How Did the Empire End? Aztec Maya Inca Montezuma defeated by Spanish conquistadors and Hernan Cortes in 1500 A.D.Cities abandoned by 900 A.D.Why?? Wars? Overpopulation?Revolts?The Mayan language still survives in S. Mexico and GuatemalaIn 1525 the Emperor dies and his two sons fight for control. This weakens the empire making it easy for Francisco Pizarro to conquer in 1535 A.D.