2 Short StoriesShort story- a brief work of fiction intended to be read in a single sittingElements of a short story- characters, setting, plot, conflict, point of view, themePlotCharactersSettingConflict
3 Characters and characterization Characters- the people or animals who take part in the actionCharacterization- the act of creating and developing a characterMotivation- reason for doing what the characters doDirect characterization- narrator makes direct statements about a character’s personalityIndirect characterization- writer shows what a character is like by providing details about what the characters say and do, what other characters say about them, and how other characters respond to themDialogue- character’s words; helps to move the action along
4 Setting Setting- the time and place of the story’s action Characters live and act in a setting.Helps to set the atmosphere or mood.
5 Plot and plot structure Plot- the sequence of events in a storyPlot structure- the way in which story events are organizedExposition- introduces the characters and their situationRising action- develops the conflictClimax- the turning point at which the story’s outcome is determined; moment of greatest intensityFalling action- sets up the endingResolution- conclusionChronological order- events unfold in time orderFlashback- shows events from beforeForeshadowing- clues that hint at events to come
6 ConflictConflict- struggle between opposing forces, calls on characters to act and drives the plotInternal conflict- takes place in the character’s mindcharacter vs. selfExternal conflict- takes place between a character and an outside forceCharacter vs. characterCharacter vs. nature
7 NARRATOR and POINT OF VIEW Narrator- the one telling the storyObjective Narrator- a neutral observer who reports on story events without adding personal commentsSubjective Narrator- one who participates in the story and offers opinions about what takes placePoint of view- the perspective from which a story is toldFirst-person point of view- story is told from the perspective of a character in the story(I, me, my)Third-person point of view- story is told from the perspective of a narrator outside the storyOmniscient third-person narrator- narrator knows everything that happens and reveals what characters feel and thinkLimited third-person narrator- reveals the thoughts and feelings of a single character
8 Theme Theme- a central message or insight about life Stated theme- expressed directly by the authorImplied theme- suggested by what happens to the charactersUniversal theme- message about life that has been expressed throughout time and in different culturesThe details of a short story (characters, setting, plot, and conflict) work together to develop the story’s theme.Tips for identifying a story’s theme:Note changes in charactersTrace the development of the plot, look at the choices characters had to make, and evaluate the resolutionPay attention to the settingKeep an eye out for irony (what happens is the opposite of what the reader or characters expects to happen)
9 SYMBOLSymbol- a person, a place, or an object that represents something else