A RTICLES ARE A TYPE OF DETERMINER AND THEY SHOW IF THE NOUN OR NOUN PHRASE IS DEFINITE OR INDEFINITE. S O, THERE ARE 2 KINDS OF ARTICLES : 1. DEFINITE (The) 2.INDEFINITE (a, an)
1. DEFINITE ARTICLE: THE 1. The definite article “the” signals the reader that the noun is specific, not arbitrary, not new to the reader. The reader knows about the mentioned noun. Example: (Wife and husband are talking about the lost keys.) Wife: “I last saw the keys on the table.” The keys: the lost keys, not any other keys.
2. We also use a definite article, if you intend a singular noun to refer to an entire class of items. This is especially common with species of animals, inventions, or musical instruments. Example: The computer is one of the greatest inventions. In this sentence, we are not talking about one computer but the invention of this item.
2. INDEFINITE ARTICLES: A / AN 1. An indefinite article signals that the noun is not specific or that other examples of the noun exist. We use a or an if a noun is new to the reader or it is an arbitrary example of the class to which the noun belongs. Example: I am going to see a doctor. In this sentence “a doctor” is an example of the class. We don’t know (also the speaker doesn’t know) which doctor he/she is going to see.
CHOOSING BETWEEN A OR AN: Use a before consonant sounds and an before vowel sounds. ATTENTION: sometimes a word’s first letter is a consonant but pronunciation starts with a vowel, or the opposite. Examples: - __An__ hour. - __A___ one-legged-man. - __An__ experiment. - __A___ school.
ARTICLES AND DEMONSTRATIVE AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES: Demonstrative and possesive adjectives are determiners. Since a noun / noun phrase takes only one determiner, do not use an article if the noun is changed by a demonstrative or possessive adjective. Example: This table is new. Correct The this table is new. Incorrect My house is big. Correct The my house is big. Incorrect
W E USE THE: 1. Before river, ocean, canal names: Example: The Pacific Ocean The Thames The Suez Canal 2. Before newspaper names: Example: The times, The Daily News
3. Before the group of mountains or islands: Example: The Bahamas but Ibiza (not The Ibiza). The Alps 4. Before musical instruments: Example: The guitar, the trumpet 5. Before the names of the rooms in a house: Example: The bedroom, the kitchen
6. If there is only one, in the world or around that area: Example: The president (of a country) The mayor (of a city) 7. Before planet names we don’t use “the” but as an exception we say: THE Sun, The Earth, The world, The Moon.
8. Before organizations: Example: The Army, The Air Force. 9. When we talk about nationalities in general: Example: The French drink wine a lot. The French = The French Nation Note: If we want to talk about only one person, we don’t use “the”. Example: She is Turkish. Correct She is the Turkish. Incorrect
10. With some time phrases: Example: In the twentieth century. In the fifties (1950s). In the morning / afternoon / evening. IMPORTANT!!!! We don’t use an article before months, years, days. Example: In January Correct In the January Incorrect For seasons, with in and during, the meaning is usually the same either with or without article: In winter = In the winter
IMPORTANT NOTE: 11. We usually use “the” with public places: Examples: The bank, The post office. BUT! When we use the with such as hospital, school or prison, it means the person is only visiting. SEE THE DIFFERENCE: He has gone to the prison. (He is visiting somebody there.) He has gone to prison. ( He is a prisoner. He did something wrong and sent to prison.)
12. Look below to see the usages: - On the bus - In the car, etc. My mother is in the car, waiting for you. BUT By bus - By car, etc. I go to work by metro. It is easier and cheaper. Note: We don’t use article before the word “HOME”. Example: Go home.
W E USE A / A N : 1. Before jobs: Example: He is a waiter. 2. When we mean to say “one”: Example: There is an orange. (There is one orange)
NO ARTICLE: 1. Before continents, countries and cities we don’t use an article. Example: Europe, Asia, France, Istanbul. But if we mention as a group of states or kingdoms, then we use “the”. Example: Britain The United Kingdom America The United States of America
The Netherland Similar to Britain, the Netherlands is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba in the Caribbean.EuropeanKingdom of the Netherlands Netherlands AntillesAruba Exception: The Hague is the third-largest city in the Netherlands after Amsterdam and Rotterdam.the NetherlandsAmsterdamRotterdam