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Presentation on theme: "PRAGMATICS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Language functions

3 „the pragmatic uses that speakers put language to in communication”
Language as a tool FORM phonological semantic syntactic Language as an act FUNCTION „the pragmatic uses that speakers put language to in communication”

4 Language functions social bonding and maintenance
(„phatic communication”) expression of identity

5 ‘informative’ communication
collective memory

6 Language functions by Halliday (1973)
instrumental I pronounce you husband and wife. regulatory You’ll be the doctor and I’ll be the patient, right? heuristic When was Shakespeare born? imaginative The little pony shook and suddenly turned into a beautiful princess.

7 representational We all long to be loved. interactional (‘phatic function’) How are you today? personal I hate being bullied.

8 Speech Act Theory by Austin (1962)and Searle (1972)
Locution Illocution Perlocution Felicity conditions Oh, what a lovely bike! I’ll lend it to you if you give me a chewing gum, all right?

9 direct (Stop teasing the dog!) and indirect speech acts (You’ll stop teasing the dog. Would you stop teasing the dog? I wish you would stop teasing the dog.)

10 Illocutionary act= the basic unit of communication (Searle, 1969, 1972)
representatives We’re going to the cinema tonight. directives Please, come and help me lay the table! commissives I promise to help you next time. expressives I say, it was a nasty job! declaratives I hereby name this ship ‘Liberty’.

11 Grice’s Communication Theory
Communicative situations are rather limited: rely on shared knowledge, common goals and mutual interests, do not convey a large amount of new info, do not attempt to bring about a complete change of view or behaviour, based on agreed processes of adjustment and accommodation.

12 Grice’s Interaction Theory (1975)
Maxims of Quality Quantity Relevance Manner

13 Other elements of cooperative communicative acts
conversational implicature (implied but unstated meanings) Questioner: Where is your husband? Speaker: He is in the living room or in the kitchen. Implication: The speaker does not know which room he is in.

14 presupposition (what is assumed or taken for granted that is why unstated)
Sam has stopped beating his wife. Sam hasn’t stopped beating his wife. Presupposition: Sam was beating his wife.

15 Daily Grill – In Palm Desert at El Paso “I never read The Economist”
Food – 3 miles Good Food – 30 miles Daily Grill – In Palm Desert at El Paso “I never read The Economist” Management Trainee, Age 42

16 shared assumptions and agreement on how specific encounters are to be regulated in terms of
turn-taking (taking the floor) exchange silence

17 Pragmatic differences across cultures
Deborah Tannen level of indirectness tolerated paralinguistic signals of different speech acts different cultural expectations - stereotypes (the pushy New Yorker, the stony American Indian, the inscrutable Chinese)

18 Example 1: TAKING THE FLOOR Indian English (by raising volume) British English (by repeating the introductory phrase)

19 Example 2: ‘Thanksgiving dinner’ situation
A: In fact one of my students told me for the first time, I taught her for over a year, that she was adopted. And then I thought – uh – THAT explains SO many things. B: What. That she was – A: Cause she’s so different from her mother B: smarter than she should have been? Or stupider than she should’ve been. A: It wasn’t smart or stupid, Actually, it was just she was so different. Just different. B: [hm]

20 Ethnocentric view of speech acts
Anna Wierzbicka Ethnocentric view of speech acts Cross-cultural differences in directness Mrs Vanessa! Please! Sit! Sit! Will/Won’t/Would you sit down? Please, have a little more! You must! Would you like to have some more? How about a beer? What’s the time? You wouldn’t happen to have the correct time, would you?

21 Indirectness and politeness
You are to get off. Not to show oneself to me here! Why don’t you bloody get off? Get off, will you. Underlying beliefs individualism collectivism „compromise”

22 Michael Clyne Should you not make your utterance more informative than required? (How are you?) Should you always be truthful? (I’m fine thanks) Should you always be relevant and straightforward? (Arab business, collectivism)

23 Goals of a pragmatic theory produce a classification of speech acts,
analyse and define speech acts, specify the various uses of expressions, relate literary and direct language use to linguistic structure, the structure of the communicative situation, the social institutions, speaker-meaning, implication, presupposition and understanding.

24 Communicative competence
„An aspect of our competence that enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meaning interpersonally within specific contexts” (Dell Hymes , 1967) CALP and BICS

25 Canale & Swain (1980) Grammatical competence Discourse competence
Sociolinguistic competence Strategic competence

26 Bachman, 1990 Language competence Organisational Pragmatic
Grammatical Textual llocutionary Sociolinguistic Vocab - Cohesion - Ideational - Dialect Morphology - Rhetoric - Manipulative - Register Syntax - Heuristic - Naturalness Phonology - Imaginative - Cultural /Graphology references & figures of speech

27 Communicative language ability (Bachman, 1990)
Knowledge structures Language competence Strategic competence Psychophysiological mechanisms Context of situation

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