3 „the pragmatic uses that speakers put language to in communication” Language as a toolFORMphonologicalsemanticsyntacticLanguage as an actFUNCTION„the pragmatic uses that speakers put language to in communication”
4 Language functions social bonding and maintenance („phatic communication”)expression of identity
6 Language functions by Halliday (1973) instrumentalI pronounce you husband and wife.regulatoryYou’ll be the doctor and I’ll be the patient, right?heuristicWhen was Shakespeare born?imaginativeThe little pony shook and suddenly turned into a beautiful princess.
7 representationalWe all long to be loved.interactional (‘phatic function’)How are you today?personalI hate being bullied.
8 Speech Act Theory by Austin (1962)and Searle (1972) LocutionIllocutionPerlocutionFelicity conditionsOh, what a lovely bike!I’ll lend it to you if you give me achewing gum, all right?
9 direct(Stop teasing the dog!)and indirect speech acts(You’ll stop teasing the dog.Would you stop teasing the dog?I wish you would stop teasing the dog.)
10 Illocutionary act= the basic unit of communication (Searle, 1969, 1972) representativesWe’re going to the cinema tonight.directivesPlease, come and help me lay the table!commissivesI promise to help you next time.expressivesI say, it was a nasty job!declarativesI hereby name this ship ‘Liberty’.
11 Grice’s Communication Theory Communicative situations are rather limited:rely on shared knowledge, common goals and mutual interests,do not convey a large amount of new info,do not attempt to bring about a complete change of view or behaviour,based on agreed processes of adjustment and accommodation.
12 Grice’s Interaction Theory (1975) Maxims ofQualityQuantityRelevanceManner
13 Other elements of cooperative communicative acts conversational implicature (implied but unstated meanings)Questioner: Where is your husband?Speaker: He is in the living room or in the kitchen.Implication: The speaker does not know which room he is in.
14 presupposition (what is assumed or taken for granted that is why unstated) Sam has stopped beating his wife.Sam hasn’t stopped beating his wife.Presupposition: Sam was beating his wife.
15 Daily Grill – In Palm Desert at El Paso “I never read The Economist” Food – 3 milesGood Food – 30 milesDaily Grill – In Palm Desert at El Paso“I never read The Economist”Management Trainee, Age 42
16 shared assumptions and agreement on how specific encounters are to be regulated in terms of turn-taking (taking the floor)exchangesilence
17 Pragmatic differences across cultures Deborah Tannenlevel of indirectness toleratedparalinguistic signals of different speech actsdifferent cultural expectations - stereotypes (the pushy New Yorker, the stony American Indian, the inscrutable Chinese)
18 Example 1:TAKING THE FLOORIndian English (by raising volume)British English (by repeating the introductory phrase)
19 Example 2: ‘Thanksgiving dinner’ situation A: In fact one of my students told me for the first time, I taught her for over a year, that she was adopted. And then I thought – uh – THAT explains SO many things.B: What. That she was –A: Cause she’s so different from her motherB: smarter than sheshould have been? Or stupiderthan she should’ve been.A: It wasn’t smart or stupid,Actually, it was just she was so different. Just different.B: [hm]
20 Ethnocentric view of speech acts Anna WierzbickaEthnocentric view of speech actsCross-cultural differences in directnessMrs Vanessa! Please! Sit! Sit!Will/Won’t/Would you sit down?Please, have a little more! You must!Would you like to have some more? How about a beer?What’s the time?You wouldn’t happen to have the correct time, would you?
21 Indirectness and politeness You are to get off. Not to show oneself to me here!Why don’t you bloody get off? Get off, will you.Underlying beliefsindividualismcollectivism„compromise”
22 Michael ClyneShould you not make your utterance more informative than required? (How are you?)Should you always be truthful? (I’m fine thanks)Should you always be relevant and straightforward? (Arab business, collectivism)
23 Goals of a pragmatic theory produce a classification of speech acts, analyse and define speech acts,specify the various uses of expressions,relate literary and direct language use tolinguistic structure,the structure of the communicative situation,the social institutions,speaker-meaning,implication, presupposition and understanding.
24 Communicative competence „An aspect of our competence that enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meaning interpersonally within specific contexts” (Dell Hymes , 1967)CALP and BICS