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Please check, just in case…. APA Tip of the Day: Ampersand When there are two authors for a reference you cite, you need to cite both of them every time.

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Presentation on theme: "Please check, just in case…. APA Tip of the Day: Ampersand When there are two authors for a reference you cite, you need to cite both of them every time."— Presentation transcript:

1 Please check, just in case…

2 APA Tip of the Day: Ampersand When there are two authors for a reference you cite, you need to cite both of them every time. When you cite them in a sentence, but not within parentheses, use “and.” When you put the citation within a parenthesis (a parenthetical citation), use an ampersand (“&”).

3 APA Tip of the Day: Examples According to Gomez and Garcia (2012), “this is very interesting” (p. 107). “This is very interesting” (Gomez & Garcia, 2012, p. 107).

4 Announcements 1.We will be talking about symbols next week. Bring in some examples of symbols and icons to share with the class. 2.I will assign the interventions within the next few days – send me an email by Friday morning with your THREE preferences. Otherwise, I will assign you to one without your input.

5 Quick questions or quandaries?

6 Today’s Topic: Cultural differences in the development of communication

7 Small Group Activity: What differences can you identify in how children from different cultural groups are raised and how they are taught to communicate? Focus primarily on differences during early childhood.

8 Video -WQ&feature=related

9 What does this have to do with students with intensive communication needs?

10 Does a student need to have “fully” developed their first language in order to learn a second language?

11 What is bilingual education? Who might be a good candidate for it?

12 What is the difference between ESL and Special Education? If we are teaching a student to begin to use language, why would he/she need ESL?

13 Quick Write Why might it be important for teachers of students with intensive communication needs to understand cultural differences in communication/language development and language socialization?

14 What does it mean to know a language?

15 Linguistic Competence “Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous speech-community, who knows its (the speech community’s) language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors (random or characteristic) in applying his knowledge of the language in actual performance.” (Chomsky, 1965, p. 3)

16 Communicative Competence: “the socially appropriate use of language.” (Paulston, 1992, p. xiv)

17 “Communicative competence involves knowing not only the language code but also what to say to whom, and how to say it appropriately in any given situation. It deals with the social and cultural knowledge speakers are presumed to have to enable them to use and interpret linguistic forms...”

18 “…Communicative competence extends to both knowledge and expectation of who may or may not speak in certain settings, when to speak and when to remain silent, whom one may speak to, how one may speak to persons of different statuses and roles, what appropriate nonverbal behaviors are in various contexts, what the routines for turn-taking are in conversation,…

19 “…how to ask for and give information, how to request, how to offer or decline assistance or cooperation, how to give commands, how to enforce discipline, and the like - in short, everything involving the use of language and other communication dimensions in particular social settings.” (Saville-Troike, 1989, p. 21)

20 Five Language Parameters: 1.Phonological 2.Morphological 3.Syntactic 4.Semantic 5.Pragmatic

21 Phonological differences Sounds and sound combinations that occur in one language may not occur in another. This may cause difficulties for a student who has a primary home language other than English. Examples: ship/sheep, thumb, ski,

22 Misconception Alert! It is important to know that studies suggest that typically developing infants begin learning the phonological system for their language community before they even speak one word. Some studies suggest the effect of different language environments can begun to be observed as early as six months. (Stoel-Gammon & Menn, 1997).


24 Morphological differences Not all languages put words together in the same way. For example, English uses suffixes (two dog-s). Other languages may be variable in morpheme order and/or the morpheme may occur in a different place in the word. For example, Portuguese has prefixes, suffixes, and “mesoclises” (in- fixes).

25 Syntactic Differences Students with a home language other than English may use a word order that differs from English. This might be due to an influence (interference) of the home language, rather than a language disorder. This can be true as well for students who speak different varieties of English.

26 Semantic Differences Words are rarely exact translations – there are subtle shades of meanings, even between people who assume they are speaking the same variety. It is critical to understand what a student means when s/he says something, rather than assuming that s/he uses a words in the same way that we might.

27 Differences in Language Use Turn-taking Interruptions Volume Rate Eye gaze Gestures Proximity Repetition Silence/pauses Response to direct questions Discourse structure Amount of assumed information Context cues Questioning Joking Agreement


29 Why is it important to understand cultural differences in communication for students who might not have yet developed language?

30 Main Points: 1.There are significant and pervasive differences in how children in different communities are raised, including basic assumptions and expectations, which are revealed in how adults (and older children) interact with infants and toddlers. 2.These differences play out in different ways of communicating – eye gaze, turn taking, nonverbal communication, proxemics, gestures, etc.

31 Main Points, cont.: 3.Language communities will differ in all aspects of a language: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. 4.Language differences do not mean that an individual has a language disorder. However, individuals with a language disorder may also have a language difference. It is critical to differentiate the two and address them respectfully.

32 Looking ahead… Pre-symbolic vs. symbolic communication

33 Please take a minute for the minute paper. And don’t forget to turn your phone back on.

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