2 Pragmatics can be defined as the study of how speakers use the sentences of a language to effect successful communication.
3 Pragmatics is different from traditional semantics in that it studies meaning not in isolation but in context.
4 Semanticists take meaning to be an inherent property of language, pragmaticists regard meaning as something that is realized in the course of communication.
5 Sentence Meaning Utterance Meaning It is context-dependent. It is the product of sentence meaning and context. Therefore, it is richer than the meaning of the sentence.It is the abstract context-independent entity called semantic proposition.
29 Principles of Conversation The co-operative principle
30 In making conversation, Grice holds that thee is a general principle which all participants are expected to observe.Make your conversational contribution such as required at the stage at which it occurs by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.
31 The maxim of quantity1. Make your contribution as informative as required (for the current purpose of the exchange).2. Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
32 The maxim of quality1. Do not say what you believe to befalse.2. Do not say that for which you lackadequate evidence.
34 The maxim of manner1. Avoid obscurity of expression.2. Avoid ambiguity.3. Be brief.4. Be orderly.
35 When we violate these maxims, in some situations, conversational implicature will arise.
36 A: Do you know where Mr. X lives? B: Somewhere in the southern suburbs of the city.(said when it is known to both A and B that B has Mr. X’s address.)
37 A: Would you like to come to our party tonight?B: I’m afraid I’m notfeeling so well today.
38 A: The hostess is an awful bore. Don’t you think?B: The roses in the garden are beautiful,aren’t they?(said when it is known to both A and B that it is entirely possible for B to make a comment on the hostess)
39 A: Shall we get something for the kids?B: yes. But I veto I-C-E-C-R-E-A-M.(said when it is known to both A and B that B has no difficulty in pronouncing the word “ice-cream”).