Presentation on theme: "Philosopher J.L.Austin’s book How to do things with words (1962)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Philosopher J.L.Austin’s book How to do things with words (1962) Pragmatics Philosopher J.L.Austin’s book How to do things with words (1962)
2 Appropriate in different contexts John called Mary last night.It was John that called Mary last night.It was last night that John called Mary.Last night John called Mary.Appropriate in different contexts
4 J. L. Austin—How to do things with words An utterance can be used to perform an actPlease close the doorI’m sorry for the way I acted.I’ll come in on Saturday to finish the project.
5 People use language to accomplish certain kinds of acts = speech acts. Speech acts:Asking for a pencilThreatening to get a pencilPromising to get a pencilOrdering someone to get a pencil.
6 Two aspects of a speech act: Locution: form of the utteranceWhat is your name? WH-QuestionIllocution: the intention of the speaker—elicit informationCan I have your name? Yes/NoIllocution: ____________
7 You must stop smokingLocution: Subject—YouPredicate--Must stop smokingIllocution: order
8 Two types of speech acts Direct and indirect speech actsThree basic types of direct speech acts.Three sentence types that correspond with these direct speech actsMost of the world’s languages seem to have these sentence types and speech acts
9 Assertion Declarative convey information Mary read the book. Speech Act sentence type functionDid Mary read the book?Question Interrogative eliciting information Order Imperative request for an action(affect other’s behavior)Read the book!Assertion Declarative convey information Mary read the book.
10 Indirect speech acts: No correspondence between the form and the intention of the speaker Did Mary read the book?Yes/No—answer that the speaker actual wantedIndirect question I would like to know if Mary read the book.I wonder if Mary read the book.
11 (please) close the door. Indirect questions: Could you close the door? Direct request:(please) close the door.Indirect questions:Could you close the door?Would you mind closing the door?
12 I would like you to close the door. It would be nice if someone closed the door.It’s cold in here.The door is open.
13 I assert that Mary read the book. I ask you if Mary read the book. Performatives: A subtype of direct speech act use performative verbs to accomplish their functions. I assert that Mary read the book.I ask you if Mary read the book.I order you to close the door.I advise you to pay the rent on time.I warn you not to cross the street alone.I promise you that I will take you out tonight.I now pronounce you husband and wife.I name this child Edgar.
14 No all uses of these verbs are performative. Change in person and tense –no longer performativeHe asserts that Mary read the book. I ordered you to close the door.
15 I hereby assert that Mary read the book. A test to find out if a particular sentence is a performative utterance:I hereby assert that Mary read the book.*He hereby asserts that Mary read the book.I hereby order you to close the door.*I hereby ordered you to close the door.
16 Appropriate or felicity conditions: Felicity conditions for questions and requests as speech acts:S = speakerH = hearerP = some state of affairsA = some action
17 S questions H about P S does not know the truth about PS wants to know the truth about PS believes that H may be able to supply the information about P that S wants
18 S requests H to do A S believes A has not yet been doneS believes that H is able to do AS believes that H is willing to do A-type things for SS wants A to be done
19 In classrooms, why do children resent teachers questions—the teacher already knows the answer Would you please stop this snowfall?
21 Gricean Conversational maxims: to understand how “speaker’s meaning” arises from “sentence meaning”—the literal form and meaning of an utterance. The cooperative principle
22 Four subparts of this principle: The maxim of quality –-“tell the truth” The maxim of quantity— “say just as much as is necessary” The maxim of relevance—“stick to the point”The maxim of manner --“Be clear”
23 Implicatures: Inferences or conclusions made in accordance with the conversational maxims A: Smith doesn’t have any girlfriends these days.B: He has been going to Portland a lot lately.Implicature: Smith has a girlfriend in Portland
24 Implicature?Statement: You make a better door than a window.Situation: Someone is blocking your view.Statement: It’s getting late.Situation: You’re at a party and it’s 4 a.m.
25 Statement: I thought I saw a fan in the closet. Situation: It’s sweltering in the room.Jack: Did you make a doctor’s appointment?Laura: The line was busy.
26 John: Who was the man I saw you with yesterday? Mary: It was just someone.Sales Clerk: Could I have your name?Customer: It’s U-M-A-S-H-R-E-S-T-H-AWhat if it was Mary Smith?
27 Politeness:Positive politeness: solidarity, closenessNegative politeness: independence, personal space, privacyBe independent and be a part of the community
28 Give me five dollars.Would you mind giving me five dollars?Do you think you might be able to give me five dollars?Add the numbers first.If I were you, I would add the numbers first.