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2.7 Climatic Conditions and Zones (Pages 74-82)

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Presentation on theme: "2.7 Climatic Conditions and Zones (Pages 74-82)"— Presentation transcript:

1 2.7 Climatic Conditions and Zones (Pages 74-82)
Page 75 - Figure 5.1

2 Read – Textbook – Page 74 A climatic region is set apart from other climatic regions by a set of characteristics (i.e. temperature range, precipitation levels, patterns of sunniness or cloudiness, wind conditions, length of each season, and the way its seasons vary). There are six climatic regions, which include: 1. Tropical; 2. Dry; 3. Temperate Mild Winter; 4. Temperate Cold Winter; 5. Polar; and 6. Highlands.

3 2.7.1 Describe climatic conditions within selected zones (Page 75)
Each of the 6 climate regions has sub-regions.

4 2.7.1 Continued Tropical Climates - Tropical Wet
- Tropical Wet and Dry Dry Climates - Semi-Arid or Steppe - Arid or Dry Temperate Mild Winter Climates - Mediterranean - Subtropical - Marine West Coast

5 2.7.1 Continued Temperate Cold Winter Climates
- Continental, Warm Summer - Continental, Cool Summer - Subarctic Polar Climates - Tundra - Icecap 6. Highlands Climate

6 Stuff About Climographs
Temperature is plotted as a line graph joining the 12 months of the year. Precipitation is shown as a series of bars, one for each month.

7 1. Tropical Climates All Tropical Climates Temperatures over 18 0C every day due to low latitude and warm ocean currents and prevailing winds blowing from equatorial region. Tropical Wet; heavy rain all year due to hot temperatures and resulting convectional rain. Tropical Wet and Dry; very heavy summer rain and very dry winter due to seasonal shift in prevailing winds. (remember monsoons from the previous section?

8 Tropical Climographs Tropical Wet Climograph
Precipitation in each month is high. Temperatures are constant and high ( C) (always above 18 º C).

9 Tropical Climographs Tropical Wet and Dry Climograph
E.g. Page 76 – Bombay, India Precipitation is very high in summer months and very low in winter months (MONSOONS) Temperatures are relatively constant and high ( C) (always above 18 º C).

10 2. Dry Climates All Dry Climates
Receive < 500 mm of precipitation annually. More evaporation than precipitation. Little vegetation and is windy. Semi-arid or Steppe Transition zone between desert and forest. mm of rain annually. Arid or Desert Occurs between oN and oS. mm of rain annually.

11 Dry Climographs Arid or Desert Climograph
E.g. Page 76 - Figure 5.2 Alice Springs, Australia. Precipitation in each month is low (total less than 250 mm). Temperature may vary seasonally.

12 Dry Climographs Semi-arid or Steppe Climograph
E.g. Page 77 - Figure 5.4 (top left climograph). Precipitation in each month is fairly low (total less than 500 mm). Temperature may vary seasonally.

13 3. Temperate Mild Winter Climate
All Temperate Mild Winter Located in the mid-latitudes. Mild winters. Temperatures vary with seasons. Mediterranean Limited to the Mediterranean Sea area. Marine West Coast Is located further from the equator. Is warmed by warm ocean currents. Subtropical East coast of continents. Close to the tropics.

14 Temperate Mild Winter Climographs
Summer temperatures vary, but winter months (even the coldest month) are warmer than –3 oC. Marine West Coast

15 4. Temperate Cold Winter Climates
Summer temperatures vary, but some winter months are colder than –3 oC. Only occurs in the Northern Hemisphere Continental Warm Summer

16 5. Polar Climates Short summer season. Small amounts of precipitation.
Ice Caps: Summer temperature are never above 0 oC. Tundra: Summer temperatures are never above 10 oC.

17 6. HIGHLANDS (Alpine) Due to elevation and involves areas
higher than 1000 m. Highland climates vary depending on a combination of four factors: 1. Latitude 2. Elevation (Altitude) 3. Topography 4. Continental Location Remember: 2°C decrease/300m increase

18 2.7.2 Patterns of Climatic Zones
Globally speaking, where is each climatic zone concentrated? Tropical? Dry? Temperate? Polar? Highlands?

19 Answers Tropical = Near the equator and between 23.5 º N and S (i.e. Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). The Tropical Wet and Dry sub-region is farther from the equator from the Tropic Wet sub-region. Dry (Desert or Arid) = Between 10 º and 30 º N and S. Also, on the west coasts of continents and on the leeward side of mountains. Dry (Semi-Arid or Steppe) = Between the Tropical Wet and Dry sub-region and the dry Desert or Arid sub-region. Temperate Mild Winter = Found in the mid-latitudes or on seas or ocean coasts. Mediterranean = West coasts of continents and in areas around the Mediterranean Sea. Subtropical = East coasts of continents. Marine West Coast = West coasts of continents, but at higher latitudes.

20 Answers Temperate Cold Winter = Mid-latitudes similar to temperate mild winter; however, it is more continental (meaning farther inland). Subarctic sub-region = Between 50 and 70 º N. Polar = Located north and south of 60 º. Tundra = Closer to oceans. Icecaps = Farther inland. Highlands = Due to elevation and involves areas higher than 1000 m.

21 2.7.2 Practice Do Question #2 on page 75 (Part A Only).

22 Georgetown, Guyana – Tropical Wet Bombay, India – Tropical Wet and Dry – Monsoonal, Dry winter months, and Hot. Montreal, Canada – Temperate Cold Winter – Seasonal. Alice Springs, Australia – Between Arid and Semi-Arid – Dry, Seasonal, Hot Summer.

23 Do Question #2 on page 75 (Part B Only)
2.7.2 Practice Do Question #2 on page 75 (Part B Only) Montreal and Alice Springs have the widest temperature ranges. RE: Temperature; colder winter in Montreal and warmer summer in Alice Springs. RE: Precipitation; more in Montreal and evenly distributed. RE: Months of Summer; opposite summer months due to northern (J, J, A) and southern (D, J, F, M) hemispheres.

24 2.7.2 Practice Do Question #2 on page 75 (Part C Only)
Different hemispheres give opposite seasons based on which months each hemisphere is tilted towards the sun and away from the sun. Do Question #2 on page 75 (Part D Only). Montreal = Temperate Cold Winter Alice Springs = Semi-Arid or Steppe

25 Page 77 – Sites A, B, and C Site C = Singapore = Tropical Wet
Flat and high temperature line. Rainfall is heavy all year long. Site B = Toronto = Continent, Cool Summer (Temperate Cold Winter) High temperature range. Coldest winter month is below -3 º C. Site A = New Zealand = Marine West Coast (Temperate Mild Winter) Warm winters. Precipitation in both winter and summer.

26 Random Questions What is the most widespread climatic zone in the low latitudes? What are two climatic zones that have dry conditions for most of the year? Which climatic zone is most widespread in North Africa? Which continents do not experience continental climates (3)? What climate zone represents St. John’s, Newfoundland?

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