2 Main Idea Climate affects animals, plants, and people. Why it Matters To discover how the Earth, the sun, the oceans, and wind interact to produce Earth’s varied climates.Climate affects animals, plants, and people.
3 The Atmosphere – yup, it’s gassy. Surrounding Earth is a sea of gases called the atmosphere.The atmosphere holds the air necessary for life on the planet.The atmosphere is also important as the source of Earth’s weather and climate patterns.
5 The Atmosphere – yup, it’s gassy. Weather is the state of the atmosphere at any given moment.Climate refers to the different kinds of weather at a particular place over a long period of time.Climate, like landforms and bodies of water, is important to plant, animal, and human life.Different plants and animals can live only in certain climates.
6 The Atmosphere – yup, it’s gassy. People have learned to adapt to a number of climates.The kinds of food that people grow are also influenced by climate.The climate of any given place is caused by a number of factors related to location.1. Where it is in relation to the equator2. Its nearness to large areas of land or water3. Altitude above sea level
7 The Effect of Latitude - Where is it in relation to the equator?How far north or south of the equator a place is located – its latitude – is important in determining climate.Because the surface of the planet is curved, the sun’s rays hit Earth at different angles.
9 The Effect of Latitude - Near the equator the sun’s rays hit Earth’s surface more vertically, or directly, than at other latitudes.These direct rays make the climates near the equator hot or warmAreas near the poles never receive vertical raysThe climate near the poles is cold all year.
10 The Effect of Latitude - Areas in the middle latitudes receive vertical rays only part of the year, which creates the seasons.Called temperate zoneIn temperate places the overall climate is neither very hot nor very cold, although temperatures can be very hot or very cold at times, depending on the season.
11 The Effect of Latitude - Seasons occur because Earth is tilted on its axis 23.5 degrees in relation to Earth’s path around the sun.This tilt exposes the Northern and Southern Hemispheres to the more vertical rays of the sun at different times of the year.
12 The Effect of Latitude - When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, it is summer there.At the same time, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere.When the Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, it is summer there and winter in the Northern Hemisphere.
13 Tropics – the Effect of Latitude Around June 22 the vertical rays of the sun hit Earth at 23.5 degrees north latitude.Farthest north the vertical rays reachCalled the Tropic of Cancer
14 Tropics – the Effect of Latitude Around December 22the vertical rays of the sun hit Earth at 23.5 degrees south latitude.Farthest south the vertical rays reachCalled the Tropic of CapricornThe word tropic refers to the area on Earth at or near the equator.
15 REVIEW -How does latitude affect climate on Earth?
16 The Effect of Land and Water 2. Its nearness to large areas of land or waterHeating and cooling differences between land and water effects climate.Land heats quicker than bodies of waterLand cools quicker than bodies of waterWater takes longer to warm up but it stays warm longer.Result: places in the middle of a large continent are likely to be much colder than places along the coast.
17 The Effect of Land and Water Ocean currents also affect the temperatures of some land areas.Examples: North Atlantic DriftCurrent brings warm temperatures to Western Europe as it flows across the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico.Without the effect of this ocean current, Western Europe would have a much colder climate.
19 The Effect of Land and Water The differences in the heating and cooling of land and water also cause winds.During daylight hours, air over land is heated more quickly than air over water. Cooler air from the water blows in and pushed the warmer air up.Sea BreezeAt night, the land cools more quickly than the water. Warmer air over the water is pushed up by the cooler air blowing out from the land.Land Breezeions.com%2Fwinds-in-maritius-i-110.html&ei=wbEEVN3COaXJ8AHas4HIBA&bvm=bv ,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNGmDI6quu1ynV-SKMKGnOrD26_cIg&ust=
21 The Effect of AltitudeA 3rd major effect on climate is the elevation, or altitude, of landforms above sea level.Going up a mountain is something like moving from the equator to one of the poles.The air temperature gets cooler the higher you go.For every 1,000 feet of altitude , the temperature drops almost 3 degrees Fahrenheit.
22 The Effect of AltitudeBecause of the effects of altitude, it is possible to find a place with a cold climate in a larger region with a warm climate.Example: Tanzania (East Africa)- warm climate, has snow and ice all year long on top of Mount Kilimanjaro.
23 How does altitude affect climate? Review:How does altitude affect climate?
24 Climate and Vegetation There are six major climate regions on Earth:TropicalDesertTemperate warmTemperate coldPolarHighlandEach of the six regions its own climate patterns and its own kinds of plant life, or vegetation.
25 Climate and Vegetation - Rainforest Most of Earth’s tropical climates are along or near the equator,far north as the Tropic of Cancerfar south as the Tropic of CapricornTropical climates are generally warm all year-round and have a lot of precipitation.
26 Rainforest Rain Forests: Average yearly temperature is close to 80 degrees FahrenheitRainfall may reach as much as 100 inches in a yearRain forests with thick vegetation and tall trees exist in many areas of the tropical climate.Amazon River (South America)Congo River (Central Africa)Islands of Indonesia and Malaysia in SE Asia
27 Desert Little precipitation for the whole year. Considered “arid” or dryAn area that receives 10 inches or less of precipitation in a yearCan be hot or cold
28 DesertTo survive a desert climate, vegetation has adapted to the arid surroundings.Some plants have leaves and stems that store much water.Others have long root systems that reach water over a large area.Most desert plants grow far apart from each other so they do not compete for the same water supply.
29 Climates and Vegetation The major difference between tropical and desert climates in precipitation.In temperate warm and temperate cold climates, the major difference is temperature.
30 Climates and Vegetation Temperate climates are generally found in the temperate zones, away from the equator and the North and South Poles.A temperate WARM climate is affected mostly by water.A temperate COLD climate is affected by land.
31 Climate and Vegetation – Temperate Cold Areas with a temperate cold climate are mostly inland.In this kind of climate, big changes in temperature take place from summer to winter, and there are about the same amounts of precipitation all year.Temperate cold climates support a variety of trees that grow in thick forests.
32 Climate and Vegetation - Temperate Warm Temperate warm climates are found along coastal areas near oceans and seas.Two kinds of temperate warm climates are marine and Mediterranean.The word marine refers to the sea. Marine climates are warm and generally damp or wet.Mediterranean climates are named for the sea between Africa and Europe. Around the Mediterranean Sea many areas of land are warm and mostly dry.
33 Climate and Vegetation - Temperate Warm Mediterranean climates are named for the sea between Africa and Europe.Around the Mediterranean Sea many ares of land are warm and mostly dry.Other areas of Mediterranean climate are found:in Californiapart of Chile in South AmericaSouthern AustraliaSouthern Africa.
34 Climate and Vegetation – Polar Climate North and south of the temperate zones are regions with a polar climate.The name polar comes from their location near the North and South Poles.A polar climate is the opposite of a tropical climate.A tropical climate has no winters.A polar climate has no summers.Can have moss/grass growing or no vegetation at all.
35 Climate and Vegetation- Highland Climate Places in hilly or mountainous regions have a highland climate.This kind of climate cannot be defined exactly.Temperature, precipitation, and vegetation may all vary depending on altitude, the main winds, and the rain shadow.