2 IntroductionThe Earth receives massive amounts of energy- solar radiation- from the sun, and this energy powers systems that give the planet its climatic characteristics.
3 Climate vs. WeatherPerhaps no system in physical geography affects people more directly than those associated with weather and climate.
4 Climate vs. WeatherClimate: takes into account the long term characteristics of our atmosphereTaken as an average of many yearsWeather: refers to the short-term, usually daily characteristics of the atmosphere.Wind, humidity, cloud cover, precipitation, air pressure, and temperature
5 Climate vs. WeatherSome locations on Earth, the term ‘weather’ and ‘climate’ are used interchangeably.This means that at these locations the weather does not change significantly from day to day
6 Climatic Classification Systems There are thousands of different climatic stations throughout the world, each one unique in its own way.We classify climates in order to identify patterns that exist on the Earth’s surface
7 World map of Climates Look at page 135 in the text book. How are locations’ climates classified?What is climate classification here in St. Stephen?
8 Climatic regions There are various climatic regions around the world. The regions are classified by various characteristics such as vegetation, amount of annual precipitation, and temperature, which usually relate to the lines of latitudeThere are 5 main climatic regionsTropicalDesertMid-latitudeHigh latitudeHighland
10 Tropical Climate Usually found with in 15 degrees of the equater Characterized by hot temperatures throughout the year.In tropical wet climates, signification amount of rainfall occur throughout the year, which in the tropical wet-dry climates, a distinctive dry season can be recognized.Monsoon climates can be included in the wet-dry subdivision
12 Desert climate Precipitation is extremely limited How weather deserts (savannah) can be easily distinguished form cold deserts found in the high attitudesThere are many factors that give rise to the desert conditionsCold ocean currentsRain-shadow areasEtc.
14 Mid latitude climates There is a variety of climates in this area Warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters are characteristics of the Mediterranean climates (Mediterranean, California, Chili, South America and Western Australia)West coast climate are found in areas on the windward side of mountain ranges and are characterized by heavy amounts of precipitation and moderate temp. year round.
15 Mid latitude climatesOn the leeward side of mountain ranges, drier climates called mid-latitude steppe can be found.Large range of temp. between summer and winterHumid subtropical climate: experience rainfall year round, with warm to hot summers and cool wintersFound on the S.E sides of continentsHumid continental climates are similar to humid subtropical climates but are found further north, and experience harsher winters
17 High Latitude Climates These climates are characterized by extremely cold winters and short, cool summers.Continental/subarctic/climate areas experience very cold, long winters and receive a minimal amount of precipitation.Marine subarctic climates are noted for their wet, windy conditions, with milder winters and more precipitation than their continental subarctic cousinsTrue arctic climates are found north of 70 degrees and are so cold they experience no summer, and are very dry and classified as a cold weather desert
19 Highland climatesVariations in altitude can result in all the above climates being experienced on a single mountain near the equator.Great differences over short distances are characteristic of highland climates, and, therefore, it is very difficult to accurately classify the climates of mountainous areas.