Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates!!! TWO TYPES: Simple = sweet/sugar Complex = starches/fibrous."— Presentation transcript:
Carbohydrates!!! TWO TYPES: Simple = sweet/sugar Complex = starches/fibrous
Carbohydrates Primary Function: Carbohydrates are the element of our food that supplies ENERGY! Carbohydrates also play a vital part of the digestive process, and of the metabolism and oxidation of protein and fat.
Carbohydrate tidbits: Carbohydrates make up the largest volume of our daily food. Fifty-five to sixty percent of our food should come from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are found in every food group, but are limited to only the beans and some nuts in the meat group. They are also readily found in sugars.
What happens when you eat a lot of carbs? If we take in more carbohydrate than is needed for energy, the unused portion is stored in the liver or the tissues as fat. Carbohydrates come mainly from plant sources, although milk and milk products contain some carbohydrates in the form of lactose.
Calories Per Gram: 4 Calories TO NOTE: PROTEIN = 4 calories/grams FAT = 9 calories/gram
Simple Carbohydrates: Sugars! Quick energy source Contain refined sugars Often have few essential vitamins, mineral or fiber Examples: fruits, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, honey, molasses, and candy/treats, sugar, etc. SWEET....SWEET....SWEET....SWEET....SWEET
Simple Carbohydrates The suffix “ose” means sugar. Some of the basic ones (simple carbohydrates) include: a) Sucrose: table sugar; b) Fructose: fruit sugar c) Lactose: milk sugar d) Maltose: malt sugar (found in barley) e) Glucose: blood sugar and grape sugar.
Complex Carbohydrates: Starches! Take longer to digest to supply long-term energy Contain tons of fiber, vitamins & minerals 4 calories/gram Examples: whole grains, dried beans, cereals, rice, pasta, vegetables The better choice!
Carbohydrates are broken down during the digestion process into: Sugars Starches The body has to break down all simple (sugar) and complex (starch) carbohydrates into glucose to use it.
The parts of Grain: Endosperm: starch and protein Germ: unsaturated fatty acids, “B” vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, and other trace minerals Bran: fiber, vitamins and minerals
More carbohydrate tidbits: All starchy foods are plant foods, seeds are the richest source; 70 percent of their weight is starch. The second important source of starch is the bean and pea family. These include dry beans found at your local supermarket such as lima beans, pinto beans, kidney beans, black-eyed peas, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), and soybeans. These vegetables are about 40 percent starch by weight and also contain a substantial amount of protein.
Complex carbs are a great staple energy! Many human societies have a staple grain from which their people derive their food energy. In Canada, the United States, and Europe the staple grain is wheat. Rice is the staple grain of the Orient. Corn is the staple grain of much of South America and the southern United States. The staple grains of other peoples include millet, rye, barley, and oats. In each society a bread, meal, or flour is made from the grain and is then used for many purposes. These staple foods are the major source of food energy for people of the world. They support human activity and energy. Any questions?
Fiber is also known as Cellulose/roughage. It attracts water to our intestines, moves food through the intestines faster. Fiber helps keep bowel movements soft in form; reduces problems related to constipation. Fiber
Foods high in fiber include: Fruits Vegetables Whole grains Legumes Bran cereals Dry beans Nuts/seeds Split peas Lentils
Cellulose is a non-digestible fiber. Our bodies cannot digest or absorb fiber. In the small and large intestine fiber attracts water just like a dry sponge soaks up water. When fiber acts like a sponge the amount of material in the intestine is increased. Therefore, fiber creates bulk in the diet.
Fiber continued… You need to drink plenty of liquids, otherwise fiber can slow down or even block bowel function. The National Cancer Institute recommends 20-35 grams of daily fiber! Fiber may reduce risks of diverticulosis, colon and rectal cancer.
Best fiber contributors The largest contributors of fiber to our diet are: Grains Fruits Vegetables Eat more of these and you’ll be happier! If you don’t believe me you may be longer in here…
Rice Long GrainInstantBrown Stays dry and fluffy Short Grain Sticks together- good for eating with chopsticks Is dehydrated, precooked, cooks quickly, doubles in quantity Is the whole grain form, most nutritious!
Cooking Rice: Bring water to a boil. Add rice, cover with a lid and reduce heat to a simmer. Do not remove the lid while rice is cooking. Turn heat to low Simmer for 20 minutes Triples in bulk/quantity: One cup of uncooked rice makes three cups of cooked rice. Ratio is 1:3
Pasta Facts: Low cost Store in tightly covered container Store dry pasta at room temperature
Cooking Pasta: Boil water to boil. Slowly add pasta to keep rolling boil. Cook uncovered! Cooks 8-10 minutes until pasta is al dente (firm to the tooth), stirring occasionally. Doubles in bulk/quantity : One cup of uncooked pasta makes 2 cups of cooked pasta. (Ratio 1:2)