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Chapter 10 Lesson 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Lesson 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Lesson 2

2 Carbohydrates They are made up of carbon, oxygen, & hydrogen
The body prefers carbohydrates as a source of energy Provides four calories per gram 45-65% of your daily calories should come from carbohydrates, mainly complex

3 Simple Carbohydrates Sugars Fruits - Fructose Vegetables
Milk - Lactose Grain – Maltose Table sugar – Sucrose

4 Complex Carbohydrates
Starches are called complex carbohydrates because they are chemically more complex. They are made of many sugars linked together During digestion, Starches break down into sugars. Rice Grains Seeds Nuts Legumes (dried peas and beans) Tubers (potatoes, cassava, yams, taro)

5 The Role of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Glucose not used right away is stored in the liver and muscles, and turns into glycogen Glycogen can be converted back to glucose the body needs it Too much carbohydrates = excess is stored as adipose tissue or body fat.

6 Fiber Tough string part of vegetables, fruits and grains
Special form of complex carbohydrates Can not be digested Not a source of energy Helps move waste through you digestive system Helps prevent constipation, appendicitis, and other intestinal problems Reduces the risk of cancers Reduces heart disease Helps control diabetes Some fiber seems to help lower blood cholesterol Helps control blood sugar

7 Increase fiber intake = 25 grams a day
Eat fruits and vegetables (with skin and seeds if it is edible) Whole-grain products, bran cereal, whole wheat brad and pasta, Whole rye bread Brown rice Oatmeal Popcorn

8 Protein Vital part of every body cell
Muscles, bones connective tissue, teeth, skin, blood and vital organs all contain protein Provides four calories per gram Excess protein is converted to fat for storage Proteins are made of chains of building blocks called amino acids 20 different amino acids Body can make all but 9 Essential amino acids – comes from food you eat

9 Complete Proteins Foods that contain all the essential amino acids
These sources include animal products Fish Meat Poultry Eggs Milk Cheese Yogurt Soybean products

10 Incomplete Protein Foods that lack some of the essential amino acids
These sources derive from seeds of plants Legumes Nuts Whole grains Seeds themselves Combining these foods is the equivalent of a complete protein

11 Role of the Protein Builds new body tissue
Replace damaged or worn out body cells Help regulate body process

12 Fats Consuming too much is unhealthy The body needs some fat
Most concentrated form of energy available Delivers more then 2x the energy as carbohydrates or protein Chemically, fats are a type of lipid Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms Made of fatty acids

13 Saturated fats The fatty acid holds all the hydrogen atoms it can
High portion of saturated fats Animal fats Tropical oils – palm oil, palm kernel oil, and coconut oil Fats in beef, pork, egg yolks, and dairy foods are high in saturated fatty acids than fats in chicken and fish High saturated fats = usually solid or semi-solid at room temperature High intake of saturated fats is associated with increased risk of heart disease

14 Unsaturated fats Healthier Missing one or more pairs of hydrogen atoms
Vegetable oils –olive oil Contain a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease

15 Role of Fats Provides nine calories per gram of energy
Integral to other health functions as well Carry vitamins A, D, E and K into your blood and fat soluble Add flavor Helps satisfy hunger since it takes longer to digest Body fat Surrounds and cushions vital organs Insulates body You need only 66 grams of fat a day Some teenage boys need 86 grams of fat a day Too much is linked to obesity, heart attacks and other health problems Not more than 30% of calories from fat and less than 10% total calores

16 Cholesterol The body needs some, but it can make what it needs
Instrumental in the production of the sex hormones and Vitamin D The protective sheath around nerve fivers Too high Major risk for heart and other circulatory diseases Limit fat intake will help reduce these risks

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