2 Dissociative Disorders Disorders in which the sense of self become separated (dissociated) from previous thoughts, memories or feelings
3 Dissociative AmnesiaCharacterized by the loss of memory in reaction to a traumatic eventPsychologists now think that this is what Freud mislabeled as repression (do not remember an event b/c it is too emotionally painful – like child sexual abuse)
4 Dissociative FugueCharacterized by loss of identity and travel to a new locationTime- hours, days, weeks , months, yearsCaused by extreme stress
5 Dissociative Identity Disorder Rare and controversial dissociative disorder in which an individual experiences two or more distinct and alternate personalitiesUsed to be called multiple personalities
6 Schizophrenia Disorders Module 29: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders
7 SchizophreniaA group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actionsIs not one disorder but a family of disordersIs not “split personality”Occurs in about 1% of the population
8 Schizophrenia Disorders: Symptoms of Schizophrenia Module 29: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders
9 Symptoms of Schizophrenia Symptoms of schizophrenia include:Delusions (false beliefs)Hallucinations (false perceptions)Inappropriate emotions or behaviors
11 DelusionsFalse beliefs of schizophrenia and other serious psychological disordersFour major types of delusions:GrandeurPersecutionSin or guiltInfluence
12 Delusions of GrandeurFalse beliefs that a person is more important than they really arePatients may believe they are a famous person (e.g. Napoleon, Jesus)
13 Delusions of Persecution False beliefs that people are “out to get” the personBelieve they are being followed, the phone is wiretapped, being followed, etc.
14 Delusions of Sin or Guilt False beliefs that the person is responsible for some misfortuneEx. I didn’t do the crossword puzzle today and it caused a plane to crash.
15 Delusions of Influence False beliefs of being controlled by outside forces“Devil made me do it.”
16 HallucinationsFalse perceptions of schizophrenia or other serious psychological disordersTypes of hallucinations:* Auditory (hearing voices)Visual (seeing things)Tactile (feeling skin sensations)Can also have distorted smell and taste
17 Inappropriate Emotions/Behaviors Flat affect – showing little or no emotional responseEmotional opposite - laugh at a funeralWord salad – nonsense talkWaxy flexibility – the person’s arms and legs will remain in place after being moved there
18 Schizophrenia Disorders: Types of Schizophrenia Module 29: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders
20 Paranoid Schizophrenia Characterized by delusions, especially grandeur and persecution. Auditory and other hallucinations support the delusions.
21 Catatonic Schizophrenia Characterized by variations in voluntary movementCatatonic excitement – rapid movements with delusions and hallucinationsCatatonic stupor – little or no activity, movement, or speech (waxy flexibility)
22 Disorganized Schizophrenia Characterized by bizarre behavior, delusions, and hallucinations.Very disturbed thought and language (word salad)
23 Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Symptoms that don’t clearly fit into one of the other types of schizophrenia but still show clear symptoms of schizophrenia
27 Biological Factors – Brain Structure Brain structure of those with schizophrenia is different than the normal brainThose with schizophrenia have smaller amounts of brain tissue and larger fluid filled spaces.The thalamus is smaller in those with schizophrenia.
28 Biological Factors – Brain Function The brain of those with schizophrenia operates differently than the normal brain.The frontal lobes show less activity.Those with schizophrenia have a larger number of receptor sites for the neurotransmitter dopamine.
29 Biological Factors – Prenatal Viruses A viral infection during the middle of pregnancy may increase schizophrenia risk.
30 Psychological Factors Two main areas:StressDisturbed familyIt’s unclear whether these are causes or consequences of schizophrenia.
31 Personality disorders Characterized by inflexible and lasting behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning
32 Related to anxietyAvoidant personality disorder – afraid of being rejected in a social relationship – therefore, thed to avoid themDependent personality disorder – clinging, needed, submissive
33 Related to odd / eccentric behaviors Paranoid personality disorder – deep mistrust of others – problem with relationshipsSchizoid personality disorder – detached from social relationships – “loner” – a hermit
34 Personality disorders with dramatic or impulsive behaviors Borderline personality disorder- unstable emotions, self-image, behavior and relationshipsAntisocial personality disorder (sociopath)- usually a man, shows a lack of conscience for wrongdoing and lack of respect for rights of others (Scott Peterson)MurdersNo remorseUsually clever and charming