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Module 29 Dissociative Disorders Schizophrenia Personality Disorders.

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1 Module 29 Dissociative Disorders Schizophrenia Personality Disorders

2 Dissociative Disorders
Disorders in which the sense of self become separated (dissociated) from previous thoughts, memories or feelings

3 Dissociative Amnesia Characterized by the loss of memory in reaction to a traumatic event Psychologists now think that this is what Freud mislabeled as repression (do not remember an event b/c it is too emotionally painful – like child sexual abuse)

4 Dissociative Fugue Characterized by loss of identity and travel to a new location Time- hours, days, weeks , months, years Caused by extreme stress

5 Dissociative Identity Disorder
Rare and controversial dissociative disorder in which an individual experiences two or more distinct and alternate personalities Used to be called multiple personalities

6 Schizophrenia Disorders
Module 29: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders

7 Schizophrenia A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions Is not one disorder but a family of disorders Is not “split personality” Occurs in about 1% of the population

8 Schizophrenia Disorders: Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Module 29: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders

9 Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Symptoms of schizophrenia include: Delusions (false beliefs) Hallucinations (false perceptions) Inappropriate emotions or behaviors


11 Delusions False beliefs of schizophrenia and other serious psychological disorders Four major types of delusions: Grandeur Persecution Sin or guilt Influence

12 Delusions of Grandeur False beliefs that a person is more important than they really are Patients may believe they are a famous person (e.g. Napoleon, Jesus)

13 Delusions of Persecution
False beliefs that people are “out to get” the person Believe they are being followed, the phone is wiretapped, being followed, etc.

14 Delusions of Sin or Guilt
False beliefs that the person is responsible for some misfortune Ex. I didn’t do the crossword puzzle today and it caused a plane to crash.

15 Delusions of Influence
False beliefs of being controlled by outside forces “Devil made me do it.”

16 Hallucinations False perceptions of schizophrenia or other serious psychological disorders Types of hallucinations: * Auditory (hearing voices) Visual (seeing things) Tactile (feeling skin sensations) Can also have distorted smell and taste

17 Inappropriate Emotions/Behaviors
Flat affect – showing little or no emotional response Emotional opposite - laugh at a funeral Word salad – nonsense talk Waxy flexibility – the person’s arms and legs will remain in place after being moved there

18 Schizophrenia Disorders: Types of Schizophrenia
Module 29: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders


20 Paranoid Schizophrenia
Characterized by delusions, especially grandeur and persecution. Auditory and other hallucinations support the delusions.

21 Catatonic Schizophrenia
Characterized by variations in voluntary movement Catatonic excitement – rapid movements with delusions and hallucinations Catatonic stupor – little or no activity, movement, or speech (waxy flexibility)

22 Disorganized Schizophrenia
Characterized by bizarre behavior, delusions, and hallucinations. Very disturbed thought and language (word salad)

23 Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
Symptoms that don’t clearly fit into one of the other types of schizophrenia but still show clear symptoms of schizophrenia

24 Schizophrenia Disorders: Causes
Module 29: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders

25 Biological Factors - Genetics
Schizophrenia tends to run in families. Genetics appears to produce a predisposition (increased likelihood) to develop schizophrenia.


27 Biological Factors – Brain Structure
Brain structure of those with schizophrenia is different than the normal brain Those with schizophrenia have smaller amounts of brain tissue and larger fluid filled spaces. The thalamus is smaller in those with schizophrenia.

28 Biological Factors – Brain Function
The brain of those with schizophrenia operates differently than the normal brain. The frontal lobes show less activity. Those with schizophrenia have a larger number of receptor sites for the neurotransmitter dopamine.

29 Biological Factors – Prenatal Viruses
A viral infection during the middle of pregnancy may increase schizophrenia risk.

30 Psychological Factors
Two main areas: Stress Disturbed family It’s unclear whether these are causes or consequences of schizophrenia.

31 Personality disorders
Characterized by inflexible and lasting behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning

32 Related to anxiety Avoidant personality disorder – afraid of being rejected in a social relationship – therefore, thed to avoid them Dependent personality disorder – clinging, needed, submissive

33 Related to odd / eccentric behaviors
Paranoid personality disorder – deep mistrust of others – problem with relationships Schizoid personality disorder – detached from social relationships – “loner” – a hermit

34 Personality disorders with dramatic or impulsive behaviors
Borderline personality disorder- unstable emotions, self-image, behavior and relationships Antisocial personality disorder (sociopath)- usually a man, shows a lack of conscience for wrongdoing and lack of respect for rights of others (Scott Peterson) Murders No remorse Usually clever and charming

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