2 Dissociative and Personality Disorders Module 49
3 Dissociative Disorder Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Symptoms 1.Sense of being unreal. 2.Being separated from the body. 3.Watching themselves as in a movie.
4 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities formerly called multiple personality disorder. Chris Sizemore (DID) Lois Bernstein/ Gamma Liason
5 DID Critics Critics argue that diagnosis of DID has increased in the late 20 th century. Also DID has not been found in other countries. Critics Arguments 1.Role-playing by people open to therapist’s suggestion. 2.Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety.
6 Personality Disorders Characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. Usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions.
7 Types of Personality Disorders Cluster A (odd or eccentric disorders) Paranoid personality disorder: characterized by irrational suspicions and mistrust of others. Schizoid personality disorder: lack of interest in social relationships, seeing no point in sharing time with others. Schizotypal personality disorder: also avoids social relationships, though out of a fear of people
8 Types of Personality Disorders Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, or erratic disorders) Antisocial personality disorder: "pervasive disregard for the law and the rights of others.” Borderline personality disorder: extreme "black and white" thinking, instability in relationships, self-image, identity and behavior Histrionic personality disorder: "pervasive attention-seeking behavior including inappropriate sexual seductiveness and shallow or exaggerated emotions" Narcissistic personality disorder: "a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and a lack of empathy"
9 Types of Personality Disorders Cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders) Avoidant personality disorder: social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation and avoidance of social interaction. Dependent personality disorder: pervasive psychological dependence on other people. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder): characterized by rigid conformity to rules, moral codes, and excessive orderliness
10 Antisocial Personality Disorder Disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members. Formerly called sociopath or psychopath.
11 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder Like mood disorders and schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder has biological and psychological reasons. Youngsters before committing crime respond with lower levels of stress hormones than do others their age.
12 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced activity in the frontal lobes. In a follow-up study repeat offenders had 11% less frontal lobe compared to normals (Raine et al., 1999; 2000). Normal Murderer Courtesy of Adrian Raine, University of Southern California
13 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder Probability of crime increases twice as much when childhood poverty is compounded with obstetrical complications (Raine et al., 1999; 2000).