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If depression is the common cold, schizophrenia is the cancer.

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Presentation on theme: "If depression is the common cold, schizophrenia is the cancer."— Presentation transcript:

1 If depression is the common cold, schizophrenia is the cancer

2 The Split Mind Schizophrenia is a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions 1. Disorganized thinking is a symptom of schizophrenia Thinking is fragmented, bizarre, and often distorted by false beliefs called delusions Delusions are false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur Those with paranoid tendencies are particularly prone to delusions of persecution

3 Jumbled ideas may create what is called word salad I need a little more allegro in the treatment Disorganized thoughts may result from a breakdown in selective attention Those with schizophrenia have great difficulty focusing and filtering out sensory stimuli while attempting to pay attention What had happened to me…was a breakdown in the filter, and a hodge-podge of unrelated stimuli were distracting me from things which should have had my undivided attention.

4 2. Disturbed perceptions is a second symptom Hallucinations often occur Most often the hallucinations are auditory (typically voices talking to them) Inappropriate Emotions and Actions Emotions are often utterly inappropriate, split off from reality While some respond inappropriately others lapse into an emotionless state of flat affect Motor behavior may also be inappropriate Some perform senseless, compulsive acts

5 Life Those with schizophrenia live in a private inner world during their most severe periods Difficult to hold down a job Given a supportive environment some eventually recover to enjoy a normal life but may still experience bouts of schizophrenia Others remain socially withdrawn

6 Onset and Development Typically strikes as young people are maturing into adulthood It is not a cultural disorder Swedish and Danish studies show that thin young men, and those who were not breastfed, are more vulnerable For some it gradually develops For others it appears suddenly, seemingly as a reaction to stress

7 Schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders The subtypes share common features, but have some distinguishing differences Patients have positive and negative symptoms (+)Positive symptoms: hallucinations, talk in disorganized and deluded ways, and exhibit inappropriate laughter, tears, or rage (-)Negative symptoms: toneless voices, expressionless faces, or mute and rigid bodies Positive are the presence of inappropriate behaviors Negative are the absence of appropriate behaviors Even though schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders, one thing holds true: when schizophrenia is a slow- developing process (called chronic), recovery is doubtful

8 Types Paranoid: preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandeur Disorganized: disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion Catatonic: immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativity Undifferentiated: many and varied symptoms Remission: withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared

9 Understanding Brain abnormalities Dopamine Overactivity Researchers discovered patients had an excess of receptors for dopamine Speculate that such high level may intensify the brain signals in schizophrenia, creating positive symptoms Researchers are currently studying glutamate Impaired glutamate activity appears to be another source of schizophrenia symptoms

10 Abnormal brain activity & anatomy Those with chronic schizophrenia seem to have abnormal brain activity in multiple brain areas Some have a noticeable decline in the brain waves in the frontal lobe Neurons fire out of sync During hallucinations, it seems the thalamus becomes extremely active Another scan showed firing in the amygdala region

11 Many studies have found enlarged, fluid filled areas and a corresponding shrinkage of cerebral tissue Two areas of shrinkage are: Cortex Thalamus Two known risk factors for schizophrenia are low birth weight and oxygen deprivation during delivery

12 Causes? Maternal Virus During Mid-pregnancy A third possibility could be a mid-pregnancy viral infection that impairs fetal brain development Fetal-virus infection lays a contributing role in the development of schizophrenia Genetic factors Odds become 1 in 10 for those whose siblings or parents have the disorder and 1 in 2 if the affected sibling is an identical twin Identical twins share prenatal environment

13 Schizophrenia Early warning signs: A mother whose schizophrenia was severe and long-lasting Birth complications, often involving oxygen deprivation and low birth weight Separation from parents Short attention span and poor muscle coordination Disruptive or withdrawn behavior Emotional unpredictability Poor peer relations and solo play

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