Harmful dysfunction in which behaviors are maladaptive; unjustifiable; disturbing, and atypical.
Maladaptive- destructive to oneself or others (exaggeration of normal, acceptable behavior). Unjustifiable- without a rational basis Disturbing- troublesome to other people Atypical- so different that they violate a norm (what is acceptable in their culture).
Have changed throughout centuries. Philippe Pinel- French physician First to reform treatment for mental patients. Believed humane treatment was better than other methods such as chaining them to the wall or locked up like zoo animals.
Classify according to symptoms, in order to: ◦ Describe the disorder ◦ Predict the future course of the disorder ◦ Treat the disorder appropriately ◦ Provide a springboard for research into the disorder’s causes.
DSM-IV-TR stands for Diagnotstic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Vol. 4. Divides mental disorders into 17 major categories Subject to change and revision. ◦ Vol. 3 stopped listing homosexuality as a disorder. ◦ Vol. 4 changes term from manic depressive to bipolar disorder.
Most patients diagnosed with disorders are fully functioning members of society. Media such as TV shows can greatly influence people’s perception of psychological disorders. Recent research into psychological disorders has taken the mystery out of these disorders and fostered more understanding. Labels have potential to shape our thoughts.
Do not overreact as you begin to study symptoms of these disorders. Remember-the definition states that degree is the key to distinguishing between “quirks in personality” with real psychological disorders
Paranoid- delusions of persecution and grandeur. Catatonic- excitement and stupor phases. Disorganized- bizarre behavior, delusions, and hallucianations. Undifferentiated- symptoms that do not clearly fit one o the other types.
Disturbances of emotions. Mania- period of abnormally high emotion Depression- sad “down”, listless, drained of energy. 2 major mood disorders ◦ Major Depressive Disorder ◦ Bipolar Disorder (formerly called Manic Depression)
Most common Person experiences at least 2 weeks of depressed moods, diminished interest in activities, feelings of worthlessness.
Alternating periods of mania and depression. Down periods of major depression. Manic episodes-unrealistically optimistic; wildly hyper behavior.
Nurture- different situations may cause a mood disorder (death of a friend or family member). Nature- predisposition to a mood disorder (runs in the family).
Inflexible and lasting behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning. With related to anxiety-sensitive about being rejected Deep distrust of other people With dramatic or impulsive behaviors- instability of emotions, self-image, behavior, and relationships Anti-social personality disorder
Very emotional and unstable relationships with others (I love you, I hate you) Extreme short term mood swings, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger Unstable self image or sense of self
Lack of conscience of wrongdoing and lack of respect Can’t be diagnosed until 18 yrs. of age. Repeatedly breaking the law Lying, using aliases, conning others for profit. Impulsive, aggressive, consistent irresponsibility Serial killers
Long standing complex feelings of inadequacy Extreme sensitivity to what others think or say about them Social inhibitions (unwilling to get involved with others unless certain of being liked) Belief that they are unappealing or inferior to others.
Sense of self has become separated from previous memories, thoughts, or feelings. Dissociative Amnesia-loss of memory of traumatic event Dissociative Fugue-loss of identity and reasoning. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly multiple personalities)-2 or more distinct personalities (extreme abuse).
Anxiety-vague feeling of apprehension or nervousness-basis of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders control and dominate life.
More than just a fear-it is both irrational and disruptive. MUST be both!!!! Social phobias- fear in social situations. Agoraphobia- fear of situations the person views as difficult to escape from if panic begins to build.