Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Essentials of Understanding Psychology

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Understanding Psychology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Understanding Psychology
9th Edition By Robert Feldman PowerPoints by Kimberly Foreman Revised for 9th Ed by Cathleen Hunt Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

2 Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

3 Module 1: Psychologists at Work
What is the science of psychology? What are the major specialties in the field of psychology? Where do psychologists work? Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

4 Psychology Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

5 Subfields of Psychology
Subfields are Psychology’s “Family Tree” How to identify a subfield? Look at the basic questions about behavior that they address. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

6 Major Subfields of Psychology
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

7 The Subfields of Psychology
What are the biological foundations of behavior? Behavioral Neuroscience Examines how the brain and the nervous system determine behavior. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

8 The Subfields of Psychology
How Do People Sense Perceive Learn About Think About …the World? Experimental Psychology Includes the subspecialty Cognitive Psychology Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

9 The Subfields of Psychology
What Are the Sources of Change and Stability in Behavior Across the Life Span? Developmental Psychology Studies how people grow and change from conception through death. Personality Psychology Focuses on the consistency in people’s behavior over time and the traits that differ from person to person. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

10 The Subfields of Psychology
How Do Psychological Factors Affect Physical and Mental Health? Health Psychology Explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease. Clinical Psychology Deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders. Counseling Psychology Focuses primarily on educational, social, and career-adjustment problems. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

11 The Subfields of Psychology
How Do Our Social Networks Affect Behavior? Social Psychology Study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others. Cross-Cultural Psychology Investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

12 Newer Subfields of Psychology
Expanding Psychology’s Frontiers Evolutionary Psychology Considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. Behavioral Genetics Seeks to understand how we inherit certain behavioral traits and how the environment influences the display of those traits. Clinical Neuropsychology Unites neuroscience and clinical psychology. Focuses on origin of psychological disorders in biofactors. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

13 Where do Psychologists work?
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

14 Psychologists: A Portrait
~300,000 psychologists work in the United States. In the United States women outnumber men in the field. Today ~¾ of doctorates are given to women. Vast majority of psychologists in the United States are white. 6% are members of racial minority groups. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

15 The Education of a Psychologist
Ph.D. Doctor of philosophy Psy.D. Doctor of psychology M.A. or M.S. Master’s degree B.A. or B.S. Bachelor’s degree Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

16 Careers for Psychology Majors
Most psychology majors take a job in this field after graduation. Most common areas of employment: Social Services Education Federal, state, and local government Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

17 Careers for Psychology Majors
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

18 MODULE 2: A Science Evolves
The Past, the Present, and the Future What are the origins of psychology? What are the major approaches in contemporary psychology? What are psychology’s key issues and controversies? What is the future of psychology likely to hold? Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

19 Major Milestones in Psychology
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

20 The Roots of Psychology
Functionalism William James Concentrated on what the mind does and how behavior functions Stream of consciousness Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

21 The Roots of Psychology
Gestalt Psychology Hermann Ebbinghaus & Max Wertheimer Emphasized how perception is organized “The whole is different from the sum of its parts” Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

22 Women in Psychology: Founding Mothers
Margaret Floy Washburn (1871–1939) First woman to receive a doctorate in psychology Animal Behavior Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886–1939) One of first to focus on child development and women’s issues Mary Calkins (1863–1930) First female president of APA Studied memory Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

23 Women in Psychology: Founding Mothers
Karen Horney (1885–1952) Focused on the social and cultural factors behind personality June Etta Downey (1875–1932) First woman to head a psychology department at a state university Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

24 Women in Psychology: Founding Mothers
Anna Freud (1895–1982) Notable contributions to the treatment of abnormal behavior Mamie Phipps Clark (1917–1983) Pioneered work on how children of color grew to recognize racial differences Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

25 Today’s Perspectives Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

26 The Neuroscience Perspective
“Blood, Sweat, and Fears” Neuroscience Perspective Considers how people and nonhumans function biologically. Includes study of heredity, evolution, and behavioral neuroscience. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

27 The Behavioral Perspective
“Observing the Outer Person” Behavioral Perspective John B. Watson B. F. Skinner Focuses on observable behavior that can be measured objectively Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

28 The Cognitive Perspective
“Identifying the Roots of Understanding” Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world Information processing Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

29 The Humanistic Perspective:
“The Unique Qualities of the Human Species” Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Emphasis is on “free will” not “determinism” Individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

30 Key Issues and 5 Major Perspectives
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

31 Psychology’s Future Psychology will become increasingly specialized and new perspectives will evolve. Neuroscientific approaches will likely influence other branches of psychology. Influence on issues of public interest will grow. Issues of diversity will become more important to psychologists providing services and doing research. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

32 MODULE 3: Research in Psychology
What is the scientific method? What role do theories and hypotheses play in psychological research? What research methods do psychologists use? How do psychologists establish cause-and-effect relationships using experiments? Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

33 The Scientific Method Approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

34 Scientific Method Four main steps 1. Identifying questions of interest
2. Formulating an explanation 3. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation 4. Communicating the findings Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

35 The Scientific Method Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

36 Hypotheses: Crafting Testable Predictions
Hypothesis Prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested. Stems from theories. Operational Definition Translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

37 Psychological Research
Systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

38 Descriptive Research Archival Research Existing data, such as:
census documents college records newspaper clippings … are examined to test a hypothesis. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

39 Descriptive Research Survey Research
A sample of people chosen to represent a larger group of interest —population —is asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes. Survey researchers strive for random sampling. Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

40 Descriptive Research The Case Study
An in-depth, intensive investigation of a single individual or a small group. Often includes psychological testing Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

41 Descriptive Research Correlational Studies
Two sets of variables are examined to determine whether they are associated, or “correlated.” Variables Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way Correlation coefficient Positive Negative Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

42 TV Viewing and Aggression
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

43 Experimental Research
Investigating relationship between two or more variables by: 1. changing one variable in a controlled situation 2. observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation Experimental manipulation Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

44 Experimental Research
Experimental Groups and Control Groups Treatment Manipulation implemented by the experimenter Experimental group Receives a treatment Control group Receives no treatment Rules out other reasons for change Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

45 Experimental Research
Independent and Dependent Variables Independent (IV) The condition that is manipulated by an experimenter Dependent (DV) The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

46 Experimental Research
Random Assignment of Participants To make the experiment a valid test of the hypothesis Random Assignment to Condition Participants are assigned to different experimental groups or “conditions” on the basis of chance Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

47 Experiment Example Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

48 Experimental Research
Significant Outcome Using statistical analysis, researchers can determine whether a numeric difference is a real difference or is due merely to chance Replication Repeating experiment Meta-analysis Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

49 Research Method: Advantages & Shortcomings
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

50 MODULE 4: Research Challenges
Exploring the Process What major issues confront psychologists conducting research? Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

51 Ethics of Research Protecting Participants APA Ethical Guidelines:
Protect from physical and mental harm Participants’ right to privacy regarding behavior Assurance that participation is voluntary Informing participants about procedures Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

52 The Ethics of Research Informed Consent
Participants sign a document affirming that they know: the basic outlines of the study what their participation will involve the risks the experiment may hold that their participation is purely voluntary they may terminate the study at any time Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

53 Should Animals Be Used in Research?
Procedures that subject animals to distress are permitted only when an alternative procedure is unavailable and when the research is justified by its prospective value Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

54 Threats to Experimental Validity
Attempt to Avoid Experimental Bias Experimental Bias Factors that distort the way the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment Experimenter expectations Participant expectations Placebo Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

55 Thinking Critically about Research
What is valid research? What was the purpose of the research? How well was the study conducted? Are the results presented fairly? Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2011

Download ppt "Essentials of Understanding Psychology"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google