Presentation on theme: "Educational Psychology Third Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Educational Psychology Third Edition PowerPoint Presentationto accompanyEducational Psychology Third Editionby John W. Santrock
2 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching C H A P T E R 1Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching
3 Learning GoalsDescribe some basic ideas about the field of educational psychologyIdentify the attitudes and skills of an effective teacherDiscuss why research is important to effective teaching and how educational psychologists and teachers can conduct and evaluate research
4 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Exploring Educational PsychologyHistoricalBackgroundTeaching: Artand Science
5 Educational Psychology… is a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings.
6 Historical Background of Ed Psych 18501875190019251950William JamesJohn DeweyE. L. Thorndike
7 importance of observing teaching and learning in the classroom William James ( )importance of observing teaching and learning in the classroom
8 John Dewey (1859-1952) the child is an active learner child adapts to the environment
9 E. L. Thorndike ( )emphasis on assessment and measurement of learningEducation must have a scientific basis
10 Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching Research in Educational PsychologyWhy ResearchIs ImportantProgram EvaluationResearch, ActionResearch, and theTeacher-as-ResearcherResearchMethods
11 Why is educational psychology research important? During a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the white box, and then saved for later reference.
12 The Scientific Research Approach The scientific research approach is objective, systematic, and testableSTEP 4Revise ResearchConclusions & TheorySTEP 3Draw Conclusions & create theorySTEP 2Collect InformationPlease Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.STEP 1Conceptualize the Problem
13 Research Methods Descriptive Research Observations LaboratoryNaturalistic observationParticipant observationInterviews and questionnairesStandardized testsCase studies
15 DescriptionCase StudyPhineas GageIs language uniquely human?
16 SurveyA technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of peopleOBJECTIVE 3-2| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of surveys in studying behavior and mental processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling.Psychology 7e in Modules
17 Survey Population – all the cases in a group Random Sampling if each member has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, we call that a random sample (unbiased).The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
18 Random Sampling from Population LO 1.9 Case studies and surveysRandom Sampling from PopulationINFERENCEPOPULATIONSAMPLE
19 Naturalistic and laboratory settings Descriptive MethodsLaboratory observation – watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting.Menu
20 (positive or negative) CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)Correlationcoefficientr =+0.37OBJECTIVE 3-4| Describe positive and negative correlations and explain how correlational measures can aid the process of prediction.Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of relationship between two variables.Indicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Psychology 7e in Modules
21 Finding Relationships Correlation coefficient ranges from 0 to 1.00Positive correlation – variables are related in the same direction.Negative correlation – variables are related in opposite direction.CORRELATION DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION!!!Menu
23 Correlation and Causation OBJECTIVE 3-5| Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships.Psychology 7e in Modules
24 Possible Explanations of Correlational Data Observed correlationPossible explanations for this correlationAs permissive teachingincreases, children’s self-control decreasesPermissive teachingChildren’s lackof self-controlChildren’s lack of self-controlcausesOther factors, such as genetic tendencies, poverty, or sociohistorical circumstancescausebothand
25 Correlation does NOT prove causation LO Correlational techniqueCorrelation does NOT prove causationMenu
26 Correlation Coefficient Interpretation RangeStrength ofRelationshipVery LowLowModerateHigh ModerateHighVery High
27 The ExperimentOperational definition - definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured.Independent variable (IV) - variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.Dependent variable (DV) - variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.Definition: Hitting while playingIV: Violent TVDV: Aggressive play
28 Random Assignment Experimental Group Test for Differences SAMPLE LO Experimental approach and termsExperimental GroupTest for DifferencesSAMPLEControl GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
29 Confounding Variables LO Experimental approach and termsEffect of violent tv on aggressionExperimental GroupSAMPLEAre differences due to manipulation or confounding variable (mood)?Control GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
30 No Confounding Variables LO Experimental approach and termsEffect of violent tv on aggressionExperimental GroupSAMPLEDifferences due to manipulation, not an extraneous variable because mood randomly determined.Control GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
31 LO 1.11 Experimental approach and terms The ExperimentMenu
33 Below is a comparison of different research methods.
34 Experimental Research A study of the effects of time management on students’ gradesParticipants randomly assigned to experimental and control groupsStudents’ grades in schoolExperimental Group (time management program)Control Group (no time management program)
35 Time Span of Research Cross-sectional Longitudinal Studying groups of people at one timeStudying the same individuals over timePlease Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.
36 Program Evaluation, Action Research, and Teacher-As-Researcher Program Evaluation: Designed to make decisions about a particular programAction Research: Used to solve a particular classroom or school problemTeacher-As-Researcher: Teachers conduct their own studies to improve their teaching
37 Should teachers conduct research using their students as subjects? Enter the DebateShould teachers conduct research using their students as subjects?YESNODuring a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the yes/no boxes, and then saved for later reference.
38 Research Challenges Ethics Gender Ethnicity and Culture Researchers protect participants from mental and physical harm.Participants give informed consent.GenderIn the past, conclusions on females have been drawn from research done on males.Ethnicity and CultureEthnic gloss, the use of an ethnic label to describe an ethnic group, leads to overgeneralizations and stereotyping when examining certain groups.Please Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.
39 Being a Wise Consumer of Information About Educational Psychology Be cautious of what is reported in the popular media.Know how to avoid drawing conclusions about individual needs on the basis of group research.Recognize how easy it is to over generalize about a small or clinical sample.Please Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.
40 Being a Wise Consumer of Information About Educational Psychology Be aware that a single study usually is not the defining word.Remember that causal conclusions cannot be drawn from correlational studies.Always consider the source of the information and evaluate its credibility.Please Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.