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Lecture Overview Introducing Psychology Origins of Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Tools for Student Success © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology What is psychology? The scientific study of behavior & mental processes. Psychology focuses on critical thinking & is scientific. Pseudopsychologies (e.g., psychics, mediums) are nonscientific. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs & misconceptions about behavior & mental processes. For example, can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slide are true or false? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work
True or False? 1.In general, we only use about 10% of our brain. 2.Most brain activity stops during sleep. 3.People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it. 4.Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Answers to These (& Other Common Beliefs) are Found Throughout Psychology in Action (9e) 1.In general, we only use about 10% of our brain. – False—(See Chapter 2) 2.Most brain activity stops during sleep. – False—(See Chapter 5) 3.People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it. – False—(See Chapter 15) 4.Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships. – True—(See Chapter 16) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology: Psychology’s Four Goals 1.Description: tells “what” occurred 2.Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred 3.Prediction: identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur 4.Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology: Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties) Biopsychology/ Neuroscience Clinical & Counseling Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Educational & School Psychology Experimental Psychology © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties Continued) Forensic Psychology Gender/Cultural Psychology Health Psychology Industrial/Organizational Psychology Social Psychology © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Careers in Psychology: Percentage of Psychology Degrees by Specialty © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introducing Psychology: Ethnicities of Doctorate Recipients in Psychology © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt: “father of psychology” Structuralism: sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind through introspection (Titchener key leader) Functionalism: studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment (James key leader) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective: unconscious processes & unresolved past conflicts (Freud = key founder) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Behavioral Perspective: objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov, & Skinner were key figures) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Humanistic Perspective: free will, self-actualization, & a positive, growth-seeking human nature (Rogers & Maslow were key figures) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 = + Carl Rogers (1902-1987)Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Cognitive Perspective: thinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory, language, & information processing © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective: genetics & other biological processes in the brain & other parts of the nervous system © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology (Continued) Evolutionary Perspective: natural selection, adaptation, & evolution Sociocultural Perspective: social interaction & cultural determinants © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Origins of Psychology: One Unifying Theme of Modern Psychology Biopsychosocial model: combines all seven major perspectives © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Why do psychologists & other scientists need multiple perspectives? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking
Do See a Vase &/0r Two Faces? Multiple perspectives allow psychologists to better understand research & complex behavior & mental processes. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Science of Psychology Basic Research: conducted to advance scientific knowledge Applied Research: designed to solve practical problems © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Scientific Method © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines Ethical Guidelines for Human Research Participants: Informed consent Voluntary participation Restricted use of deception Debriefing Confidentiality Alternative activities © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines (Continued) Rights of Nonhuman Participants: Advocates believe nonhuman research offers significant scientific benefits. Opponents question these benefits & suggest nonhuman animals cannot give informed consent. General Guidelines: Psychologists must maintain high standards for both human & nonhuman animal research. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods Four key research methods: 1.Experimental 2.Descriptive 3.Correlational 4.Biological © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Art of Prediction
Four Key Research Methods (Continued) 1. Experimental Research: carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause & effect © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) Key features of an experiment: – Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured) – Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Does TV increase aggression? Only an experiment can determine cause & effect. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) esearcher Potential researcher problems: – Experimenter bias (researcher influences the research results in the expected direction) – Ethnocentrism (believing one's culture is typical of all cultures) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) participant Potential participant problems: – Sample bias (research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population) – Participant bias (research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Descriptive 2. Descriptive Research: observes & records behavior without producing causal explanations © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Descriptive Three types of descriptive research: Naturalistic Observation (observation & recording of behavior in natural state or habitat) Survey (assessment of a sample or population) Case Study (in-depth study of a single participant) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
What is the advantage of studying psychological research methods like naturalistic observation? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work
Do You Get it? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational 3. Correlational Research: observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational Positive Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the same direction—either up or down © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
two variables move (or vary) in the opposite direction—either up or down © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Negative Correlation
Research Methods—Correlational Zero Correlation: no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase, decrease, or stay the same) © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Correlational Can you see why correlation can never show cause & effect? © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Research Methods—Biological 4. Biological Research: scientific studies of the brain & other parts of the nervous system © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Chapter 1 Psychology as a Science Overview. What is Psychology? –Psychology Is the Scientific Study of Mental Processes and Behavior.
1 the science of psychology.
Introduction to Psychology
Welcome to Psychology! Ms. Zendrian. What is Psychology? Studying psychology helps us to understand who we are, where our thoughts come from, our actions,
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
Note to Instructor: Internet connection is required to access media assets. No connection? Request a CD/DVD for Wiley owned CyberPsych assets. The following.
Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods
The Basics Unit One. Origins of Psychology -Roots in ancient philosophy -Socrates – “ know thyself” -Plato – rely on thought and reason -Aristotle – rely.
Step Up To: Discovering Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury Discovering Psychology 4e Worth Publishers (2007) From: Hockenbury.
CHAPTER 1: Introducing Psychology and its Methods Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin.
Introduction and History of Psychology Chapter 1.
Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall1-1 Psychology Definition – the science of behavior and mental processes.
Chapter 1 What is Psychology?.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 1 What is Psychology?
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. Definition & Goals The scientific study of behavior and mental processes What are the GOALS of Psychology ? – Describe.
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION Sixth Edition by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation.
Myers’ Psychology for AP* David G. Myers. Unit 1: Psychology’s History and Approaches.
Unit 1: Psychology’s History and Approaches
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