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© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION Sixth Edition by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 1 Introduction & Research Methods Paul J. Wellman Texas A&M University
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Lecture Overview Understanding Psychology Doing Research in Psychology Perspectives in Psychology
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E The Study of Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology values empirical evidence Psychology employs critical thinking Psychology employs systematic research methods Goals of Psychology include: –Description of behavior using careful observations –Explanation involves identifying the cause(s) of behavior –Prediction allows for specification of the conditions under which a behavior will occur or not –Psychological knowledge can be used to assist changes in behavior (I.e. helpful changes)
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Pseudopsychologies Pseudopsychologies are unreliable approaches that do not use the scientific method Examples of pseudopsychologies include: –Astrology: system that tries to relate personality to the movement of the stars –Palmistry: idea that reading a person’s character from the lines on their palms –Psychokinesis: notion that humans can move objects through mental concentration –Follicology: notion that personality characteristics are related to hair color
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Psychological Research Two forms of psychological research: –Basic research seeks answers for theoretical questions E.g. How is hunger controlled by the brain? –Applied research seeks answers for specific application problems E.g. Organizational psychology studies leadership, job satisfaction, job training, and development –A specific issue in this area is whether leadership can be trained or is this an innate ability?
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Areas of Psychology Clinical Educational School Industrial/organiz- ational Developmental Social Comparative Neuropsychology Health psychology Cognitive
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Psychology Degrees By Area
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Overview of the Scientific Method
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E The Experiment An experiment involves a set of controlled conditions that aims to confirm a hypothesis Hypothesis refers to a statement of cause and effect: “Higher environmental temperatures lead to more aggression” “Exposure to marijuana increases appetite”
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Experimental Variables To test a hypothesis, an experimenter defines the variables of the hypothesis: –Cause: Independent variable (IV) Marijuana: Plain cigarette versus cigarette containing 5 mg of THC (the active ingredient in marijuana) –Effect: Dependent variable (DV) Appetite: Grams of ice cream consumed in 1 hour The experimenter manipulates the IV and measures the DV to test the hypothesis
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Research Issues Controls are important for determining causality –The only difference between the experimental and control groups is the presence or absence of the IV. Placebo effects represent changes in behavior that are related to expectations of a treatment –Placebo effects are controlled by a blind control group (the subject does not know whether the treatment was given or not) Experimenter bias refers to expectations that influence subject behavior –Experimenter bias can be controlled using double blind procedures (experimenters and subjects are ignorant of treatment conditions)
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Non-Experimental Research Naturalistic observation refers to the systematic recording of behavior in a natural state or habitat –E.g. Jane Goodal observing apes in the wild Surveys are instruments designed to sample attitudes or behaviors –Asking persons at a rally how they feel about animal rights issues A case study is an in-depth study of a single person –Freud used the case study method to probe anxiety
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Correlation Techniques The correlation technique indicates the degree of association between 2 variables Correlations vary in direction: –Positive association: increases in the value of variable 1 are associated with increases in the value of variable 2 –Negative association: increases in the value of variable 1 are associated with decreases in the value of variable 2 –No relation: values of variable 1 are not related to variable 2 values
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Correlations Correlations also vary in the strength of the association –Zero correlation: no relationship between the 2 variables –Strong correlation: knowing the value of one variable permits one to accurately estimate the value of the other variable Strong correlation can be positive or negative Correlations can be seen in scatter plots
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Correlation Difficulties
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Ethical Issues in Research Respecting the rights of human research participants involves –Informed consent is an explanation of a study and the responsibilities of experimenter and participant –Deception involving the subjects must be justified –Confidentiality of study information must be maintained –Debriefing refers to explaining the research process to the subjects at the end of the study Animal research must be justified and must minimize discomfort to participants
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Early Pioneers of Psychology Experimental psychology focused on the study of experience Structuralism focused on sensations and perceptual experiences Functionalism investigated functions of mental processes in adapting to the environment Gestalt psychology emphasized perception; the notion that the whole is more than the sum of the parts
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Modern Psychology Views Psychoanalytic view emphasizes the unconscious mind Behaviorism focuses on objective and measurable behaviors Humanistic psychology emphasizes the inner-self and the importance of subjective feelings Cognitive psychology focuses on mental function and reasoning
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Modern Psychology Views Psychobiology views behavior as reflecting brain processes Evolutionary psychology asserts that certain behavioral characteristics are subject to natural selection Cultural psychology examines the influence of culture and ethnic practice on people’s behavior
© 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 6E Copyright Copyright 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner.
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