2 Constructivism – people are active learners Chapter 7: CognitionCognition: the activity of knowing and the processes through which knowledge is acquired and problems are solvedConstructivism – people are active learners
3 How we come to know reality Clinical Method Jean Piaget ( )Genetic EpistemologyHow we come to know realityClinical MethodQuestion and answer techniqueUsed to discover how children think about problems
4 Clinical Method (example of a 6 year old) Piaget: Why is it dark at night?Van: Because we sleep better, and so that it shall be dark in the rooms.Piaget: Where does the darkness come from?Van: Because the sky becomes grey.Piaget: What makes the sky become grey?Van: The clouds become dark.Piaget: How is that?Van: G-d makes the clouds become dark.
5 PiagetIntelligence: How well we adaptScheme (s) or schema (schemata)/cognitive structuresOrganization- Children systematically combine existing schemes into new and more complex ones.- E.g., infant who gazes, reaches, and grasps will organize these simple schemes into a complex structure called visually directed reading.
6 AdaptationAdjusting to the environmentUsing assimilation and accommodationAssimilationUsing existing schemes to interpret new experiencesE.g., Birds are things that flyAccommodationModifying schemes to fit new experienceE.g., Butterflies are different than Birds even though they both flyEquilibriumA resolution of conflict to create a balance
7 Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s Four StagesCognition unfolds in a sequence of four stages.Each is age-related and distinctive.Each stage is discontinuous from and more advanced than another.
8 PiagetSensorimotor StageNewborn uses reflexes to understand worldEventually - mental representationObject PermanenceA, not B, error – 8 to 12 month-olds search for an object in the place where they last found it (A) rather than in its new hiding place (B).Symbolic Capacity (read in book)
10 Symbolic Function Substage (2-4 Years) Symbolic thought: Mental representation of an object that is not present (drawing, pretend play, and language)Egocentrism: The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective.Animism: The belief that inanimate objects have “lifelike” qualities and are capable of action.
14 Intuitive rather than logical Lack classification abilityLack conservation due to static thinking, irreversible thought and centrationAsks a lot of questionssignals the emergence of the interest in reasoningreflects intellectual curiosity
18 Conservation of Length Is one of these lines longer or are they they same?What would the pre-operational child say?
19 Conservation of Length The preoperational child would say the one onthe top is longer. Pre-operational childrenbase their concepts on perception, not logic.
20 Conservation of Length Are all of these lines the same length? Is one longer?What would the pre-operational child say?
21 Conservation of Length Preoperational children are tricked by perception.The think the one “out front” is longer.
22 Conservation of Area Which side has more green?
23 Both have the same area of green Both have the same area of green. Preoperational children rely on perception and think the one on the right has more.
24 Conservation of Number Do these two rows have the same number of balls?Do these two rows have the same number of balls?Which has more?
25 Conservation of Number Pre-operational children think the row on thebottom has more. Later they developone-to-one correspondence.They understand there is one for thisone, one for that one, and one for that one, etc.
26 Concrete OperationsAge 7-11Can conserveDecentrationReversible thinkingLogical thinking (limited to reality)Seriation and classificationTransitive thinking:“ If J is taller than M, and M is taller than S, who is taller – J or S?”
27 Figure 7.4 Some common tests of the child’s ability to conserve.
28 Short AnswerWhen a child can focus on both width and length of two triangles in order to compare their areas, Piaget would say that the child is capable of _________________.
29 Formal OperationsAdolescence/pubertyLogical thinking about ideasHypothetical and abstract thinkingHypothetical-deductive reasoning – from general ideas to their specific implicationsDecontextual thinkingAbility to separate prior knowledge/beliefs from new evidence to the contrary
30 Formal Operations 2Adolescent egocentrismDifferentiating own thoughts from others’Imaginary audienceAlso, learning to present themselves to a real audiencePersonal fable“No one has ever felt like this before!”“I drive better when I’m drunk!”
31 Cognition in Adulthood Formal operations requiresNormal intelligenceHigher education (scientific thinking)Lower performance on formal operationsUse only in field of expertisePostformal thoughtRelativistic thinking: Labouvie-ViefNo absolute answer in many situations
32 PiagetContributionsStimulated much researchCorrect about the sequence of cognitive developmentChallengesUnderestimated young mindsFocused on performance not competenceDomain specific rather than stagesSocial influences left out (too much the “isolated scientist.”
33 VygotskyEmphasized the socio-cultural contextCulture affects how and what we thinkZone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Accomplishment with guidanceWhere lessons should be aimedGuided participation (a form of scaffolding) learningPrivate speech/ guides behavior (3 & 4 yr olds)
34 Cognitive Development Vygotsky’s Theory The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)student can work with the student can workassistance of an instructor ________________________ independentlyLanguage and ThoughtDevelop independently of each otherHave external or social originsScaffoldingTeacher adjusts the level of support as performance risesZPD
35 Scaffolding Applications of Vygotsky’s Theory New Task = Mentor + Learner2. Time Passes = Gradual Release3. Learner Takes on the Responsibility for learningScaffolding