Presentation on theme: "Influential Philosophies in Education Terresa D. Fontana, M.A.Ed."— Presentation transcript:
Influential Philosophies in Education Terresa D. Fontana, M.A.Ed.
Cognitive Theory Behavioral Theory Social Theory Jean Piaget (1896-1980) B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) L. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934) Swiss educator and life- long researcher whose passions included developmental psychology and genetic epistemology Fascinated with the development of knowledge and applied his studies in Biology and Philosophy towards developing his cognitive learning theory American psychologist whose interests included research and writing Developed his behavioral theory based on his beliefs that an individual simply responds to stimuli within its environment Russian psychologist whose interests included literature and philosophy Theoretical framework is based on the understanding that cognitive development is dependent upon social interaction
Jean Piaget Key Idea of Cognitive Development Theory A child actively constructs individual knowledge through organization and adaptation of information until equilibration has occurred. Adaptation is the process of: assimilation: taking in new information and molding it to fit into existing knowledge “schema” or structures accommodation: changing schema to adapt to new information equilibration:occurs when there is a balance between assimilation and accommodation
Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) Children learn through their senses and develop schema for object permanence and goal-directed behavior. Preoperational (2 – 7 years) Children continue to learn through their senses but begin to use language to represent objects; begin to form intuitive theories to explain events. Key components: egocentrism, centration, rigidity of thought. Concrete Operational (7 – 11 years) Children begin to develop concepts of number, relationships, processes; still think in terms of concrete objects; developing ability to understand rules. Key components: classification, seriation and conservation. Formal Operational (11 + years) Adolescents and adults are capable of abstract thought, inductive and deductive reasoning and reflection.
Teacher’s Role The teacher is the facilitator of age-appropriate and developmentally-appropriate learning experiences.
B. F. Skinner Key Idea of Behavioral Theory Learning is simply a behavioral response to the environment and is controlled through reinforcement and punishment.
Operant Conditioning “…a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of that behavior’s occurrence.” (Santrock, 1990) (Also may be referred to as the Stimulus-Response Behavioral Pattern)
Teacher’s Role The teacher is the regulator of behavior through the use of rewards and punishment.
Lev Vygotsky Key Idea of Social-Learning Theory A child’s knowledge can only be constructed through social interaction with other children and adults within the Zone of Proximal Development and is dependent upon the child’s culture and society. Zone of Proximal Development: the difference between what children can do on their own and with the assistance of others
Vygotsky’s Three Stages of Language Development Communication (social speech) Egocentric (private speech) Used to regulate thinking; includes talking aloud or whispering Inner Speech (verbal thoughts) Used to guide thinking and actions
Teacher’s Role The teacher is the facilitator of meaningful play and social learning experiences.
Cognitive Theory Behavioral Theory Social Theory I provide activities outside the regular curriculum to allow my students to experience hands-on, developmentally- appropriate learning experiences. I utilize a behavior management system in which there are consequences for good and bad behavior in order to control the classroom and learning environment. I provide group learning activities and encourage social learning whenever possible, usually through the use of activities outside the regular curriculum.
References Kearsley, G. (no date) Explorations in learning and instruction: The theory into practice database. Retrieved November 27, 2004, from http://tip.psychology.org/http://tip.psychology.org/ McGraw-Hill Higher-Education. (2002) Cognitive development: Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories. In Child and Adolescent Development for Educators. Retrieved November 27, 2004, from http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072322357/student_view0/chapter3/chapter_overview.html http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072322357/student_view0/chapter3/chapter_overview.html Peterson, R. (1986) The Piaget handbook for teachers and parents. New York: Teachers College Press. Santrock, J. W. (1990) Children (2nd ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.