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What research is Noun: The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Verb:

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Presentation on theme: "What research is Noun: The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Verb:"— Presentation transcript:

1 What research is Noun: The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Verb: Investigate systematically.Synonyms:noun.  investigation - exploration - search - study - inquiry verb.  explore - investigate - search - study - inquire

2 Con… Creswell states: "Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question

3 Con… The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research as:
“A studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws"

4 Con… Research is the investigation of a particular topic using a variety of reliable, scholarly resources. The three major goals of research are establishing facts, analyzing information, and reaching new conclusions. The three main acts of doing research are searching for, reviewing, and evaluating information.

5 Con… Learning what research is not may help you fully grasp the concept. Randomly selecting books from the library is not research, nor is surfing the Internet. On the contrary, research requires organization, resourcefulness, reflection, synthesis, and above all, time.

6 Con… Research is a process of investigation. An examination of a subject from different points of view. It’s not just a trip to the library to pick up a stack of materials, or picking the first five hits from a computer search. Research is a hunt for the truth. It is getting to know a subject by reading up on it, reflecting, playing with the ideas, choosing the areas that interest you and following up on them. Research is the way you educate yourself

7 Purpose of research There are two basic purposes for research: to learn something, or to gather evidence. The first, to learn something, is for your own benefit. It is almost impossible for a human to stop learning. THREE PURPOSES OF RESEARCH      Exploration      Description      Explanation

8 Con…  Exploration: gaining some familiarity with a topic, discovering some of its main dimensions, and possibly planning further, more structured research Description: as in the Census Bureau's report on how many Americans there are, a political poll predicting who will win an election, or an anthropologist's ethnographic account of a preliterate tribe.

9 Con… Explanation: In addition to knowing which candidates voters favor, we may go the next step to ask why? What kinds of voters--men or women, young or old--prefer which candidates and why?

10 Characteristics of Research
Systematic procedures, Controlled procedures, validity, rigorousness, logicality, critical thought, objectivity and accuracy. Research is systematic: A researcher should employ a structured procedure. From the beginning to the end should follow certain pre-established rules and regulations.  Research is logical: Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.

11 Con… Research is Reductive:
As a practical phenomena, reductivity refers to reducing researcher's responsibility. This means that findings of one researcher is transferred to other researchers to prevent them from repeating, the same research. In other words, research is in most cases, additive. Findings are accumulated, sometimes from one generation to another, in order of scientists to use them in their endeavor to uncover the mysterious of nature

12 Con… Research is replicable:
In such situations, in which other researchers are interested in previously investigated question, they may want to confirm the findings of previous research in new environment, with a new group of subjects, or at a different point in time. Research is generative: This is one of the most valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions

13 Con… 13 characteristics are:
replicability, time- bound, empirical, systematic, valid, reliability critical thinking, accurate, realistic, attainable measurable, analytical, and logical

14 Types of research Action research is a methodology that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues or phenomena through observation and reflection, and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Applied research is research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake. Basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge.

15 Con… Clinical trials are research studies undertaken to determine better ways to prevent, screen for, diagnose or treat diseases. Epidemiological research is concerned with the description of health and welfare in populations through the collection of data related to health and the frequency, distribution and determinants of disease in populations, with the aim of improving health. Evaluation research is research conducted to measure the effectiveness or performance of a program, concept or campaign in achieving its objectives.

16 Con… Qualitative research is research undertaken to gain insights concerning attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviours of individuals to explore a social or human problem and include methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation research and case studies. Quantitative research is research concerned with the measurement of attitudes, behaviours and perceptions and includes interviewing methods such as telephone, intercept and door-to-door interviews as well as self-completion methods such as mail outs and online surveys.

17 Con… Service or program monitoring and evaluation involves collecting and analysing a range of processes and outcome data in order to assess the performance of a service or program and to determine if the intended or expected results have been achieved. Literature review is a critical examination, summarisation, interpretation or evaluation of existing literature in order to establish current knowledge on a subject.

18 Research Process The Six Steps of the Research Process
Step 1: Determining Research Needs Step 2: Defining a Research Topic Step 3: Developing a Search Strategy Step 4: Conducting the Search Step 5: Evaluating Resources Step 6: Citing Resources

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