2 Research problem, Purpose, question and hypothesisPrepared byDr. Manal Moussa
3 ILO’S O Define of the research problem. O Identify sources of research problem.O Formulate a research problem.O Evaluate a research problem.O Identify criteria of good problem statement
4 ILO’S Cont. O Determine the types of the variables. O Identify the purpose of the research hypothesis.O Identify the characteristic of good hypothesis.O Determine the types of hypothesis.
5 Introduction:A research study begins as a problem thata researcher would like to solve or asa question that a researcher would like toanswer. Problem formulation is the mostimportant step in a research process. Itprovides direction for the rest of the study.
6 Identifying the problem is the initial, and one of the most significant steps in research. The research purpose evolves from the problem and provides direction for the subsequent steps of the research process.
7 Definition of the research problem: A research problem is a "situation in need of a solution, improvement, or alteration. OR "a discrepancy between the way things are and the way they must to be".
8 IMPACT OF UNIT MANAGERS’ LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS ON STAFF NURSES’ EMPOWERMENT AND COMMITMENT IN SHEBIEN EL-KOM TEACHING HOSPITAL
9 The research purpose is a concise, clear statement of the specific goal or aim ofthe study. The goal of a study might be toidentify, describe, explain, or predicta solution to a clinical problem.
10 Objectives: Determine the leadership behaviors of nurse managers. Determine whether the use of a certain leadershipbehavior by nurse managers make a difference in staffnurses’ job commitment.nurses’ empowerment.Determine the relationship between staff nurses’empowerment and organizational commitment.
11 IN SHEBIEN EL-KOM TEACHING HOSPITAL Problem statement specifies what is being studied, and identifies study variables and population.IMPACT OF UNIT MANAGERS’ LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS ON STAFF NURSES’ EMPOWERMENT AND COMMITMENTIN SHEBIEN EL-KOM TEACHING HOSPITAL
12 Sources of research problem: Clinical experience:The nurse's every day experienceprovides a rich supply of problems forinvestigation from clinical observation ofpatient, his family, and charts.
13 2. Nursing literature:Ideas for studies often comes from reading the nursing literature, including research reports, opinion articles, and summaries of clinical issues. Research reports may suggest problem areas indirectly; by stimulating the reader's imagination, and directly; by openly what additional research is needed.
14 3. Social issues:Topics are sometimes suggested by political issues of relevance to health care community. Idea for study may stem from a familiarity with social concern.
15 4. Theory:a research problem and purpose could be formulated to explore or describe a concept in a theory such as a study to describe the concept of self care in Orem's theory.
16 5. Ideas from external sources: A research topic may be given as a direct suggestion, for example a faculty member may give students a list of topics from which to choose.
17 6. Replication of studies: Reviewing the literature is a way to identify a study to replicate. Replication involves reproduction or repeating a study to determine whether similar finding will be obtained.
18 Formulating a research problem: A research problem is one that can be studied using quantitative or qualitative research problems.
19 The elements for formulating a research problem include: Select a topic by identifying an area of interest:The development of a research problem is essentially a creative process dependent upon imagination, and insight. Once a research problem has been identified, the researcher must then narrow down the research topic and develop a problem statement.
20 Review the literature to determine the topic's present level of knowledge: A review of relevant articles may bring to light theoretical framework, methodologies, data collection tools, and methods of data analysis that have been used to study the problem.Evaluate the research problem for feasibility.
21 How do researchers evaluate a research problem? The researcher can ask the following question to evaluate the proposed problem and decide whether it should be investigated through the research process.
22 ♦ Is the topic interested? An important criterion in selecting problems for research is that they be of interest to the researcher because interest in the problem can only be a strong motivation for the researcher to pursue the project to its conclusion, creativity, and with intellectual honesty.
23 ♦ Is it feasible to conduct research on the problem? Feasibility of follow a research problem can be evaluated by the following criteria:Availability of methodology.Time needed to complete the study.Danger to life or physical and mental wellbeing of subjects.Cost of the research.Cooperation with others.
24 ♦ Is the problem researchable? Ethical consideration: Not all problems are agreeable to study through scientific investigation. Research problem is one that is suitable for solution through that the collection and analysis of data that exist in the real world.
25 ♦ Is this problem significant enough? Even though a topic may be interesting in itself, the researcher must consider whether it is sufficiently significant to a research study. A good nursing research problem should have practical and/or theoretical significant. Its solution should contribute to the improvement of nursing care or to the advancement of nursing as a profession.
26 Criteria of good problem statement: There are three criteria for a good problem statement:1. The problem should express a relation between two or more variables.2. The problem statement should be stated clearly.3. The problem statement should imply the possibility of empirical testing (applicable).
27 Research question:A research question is statement of a specific question the researcher wants to answer to address the research problem.The research questions guide the type of data to be collected in the study.A research question is a concise questioning statement that worded in the present tense and includes one or more variables.The focuses of the research questions are description of the variables, examination
28 of relationships among variables, determine differences between two or more groups regarding selected variable (s).Question invites an answer and help to focus the researcher's and the reader's attention on the kinds of data that would have to be collected to provide that answer.
29 Research Questions:What is the leadership behaviors’ of unit managers?What is the relationship between unit managers’leadership behaviors and staff nurses commitment?leadership behaviors and staff nurses empowerment?What is the relationship between staff nurses’empowerment and staff nurses’ organizationalcommitment?
30 Types of the variables: Variable is a characteristic or attitude that varies or differs among the persons or objects being studied. There are two types of variable; dependent and independent variable.
31 1. Independent variable : is the variable that is believed to influence or cause the dependent variable. In an experimental study the independent variable is the treatment or intervention that the researcher manipulates.
32 2. Dependent variable :is the outcome, response, or behavior that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Or it is criterion variable that is hypothesized to be caused by another variable.
33 Research hypothesis:The hypothesis translates the research problem and purpose into a clear explanation or predication of the expected results or outcomes of the study and includes the variables to be manipulated or measured.
34 The hypothesis is defined as statement of the expected relationship between dependent and independent variables, or it is a researcher predication of the outcomes of the research study based on the research .variables.
35 Purpose of the research hypothesis: Identify variables to be studies.Identify population to be examined.Identify types of research to be conducted.Direct measurement of variables.
36 Characteristic of good hypothesis: 1. It is a declarative sentence.2. It is brief and clearly stated.3. It identifies at least two variables.4. It states an expected relationship between variables5. It states the nature relationship between variables (positive, or negative).6. Implies that the predicated relationship can be tested.
37 Types of hypothesis:1. Associative versus causal hypothesis.2. Simple versus complex hypothesis.3. Non directional versus directional hypothesis.4. Null versus research hypothesis.
38 1. Associative versus Causal Hypothesis. a. Associative hypothesis:Identify relationship among variables in a study but do not indicate a cause or a relationship between variables. Associated hypothesis are usually expressed as:Variable X is related to variable Y and Z in a specific population. (Predicated relationship).
39 Variable X increases as variable Y increases in a specific population Variable X increases as variable Y increases in a specific population. (Predicts a positive relationship).Variable X decreases as variable Y decreases in a specific population. (Predicts a positive relationship).Variable X increases as variable Y decreases in a specific population. (Predicts an inverse relationship).
40 b. causal hypothesis:Identify a cause and effect interaction between the dependent and independent variable. The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable.
41 2. Simple versus Complex Hypothesis: a) Simple hypothesis:Researcher predicts the relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.b) Complex hypothesis:Researcher predicts the relationship among two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables.
42 3. Nondirectional versus Directional Hypotheses: a) Nondirectional hypotheses:The researcher states that a relationship exists but does not predict the nature of the relationship. e.g. there will be a relationship between self concept and suicidal behavior.
43 b) Directional hypotheses: The researcher predicts or states the natural (positive or negative) of the interaction between two or more variables.Directional hypotheses are developed from theoretical statement, finding from previous studies and clinical experience. e.g. there will a positive relationship between trust and self disclosure in marital relationship.
44 4. Null hypotheses:The null hypothesis used when the researcher believes there is no relationship between two variables. e.g. there will no difference between men and women in knowledge about HIV transmission routes.