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RESEARCH A systematic quest for undiscovered truth A way of thinking

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Presentation on theme: "RESEARCH A systematic quest for undiscovered truth A way of thinking"— Presentation transcript:


2 RESEARCH A systematic quest for undiscovered truth A way of thinking
Is a manner of regarding accumulated facts by the researchers mind in term of what those data mean and what those facts say A manner in which men and women solve the knotty problems in the attempt to push back the frontiers of ignorance.

3 RESEARCH Is the systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem. A systematic process aimed at obtaining new knowledge through verifiable examination of data and empirical testing of hypothesis.

4 BASIC RESEARCH Is necessary to improve the existing knowledge and generate new technologies to deal with major unresolved health problems.

5 APPLIED RESEARCH It is necessary to identify priority problems and to design and evaluate policies and programs that will deliver the greatest health benefit, making optimal use of available resources.

6 Operations research Gathering information or knowledge for improving the health of the community or for improving the service delivery network.

7 Exploratory research It is a small scale study of relatively short duration, which is carried out when little is known about a situation or a problem. This is undertaken to formulate a more precise research problem or to develop a hypothesis

8 Descriptive study Involve the systematic collection and presentation of data to give a clear picture of a particular situation. Small and large scale Describes the characteristics of limited no. of cases. Provide useful insight into a problem. CROSS SECTIONAL study – quantifying the distribution of certain variables in a study population. Behaviour of the people – KAP studies ANALYTICAL REAEARCH Quantitative research methods Qualitative research methods

9 Intervention studies The researcher manipulates a situation and measures the effects of a manipulation. Usually two groups are compared, one in which intervention takes place Another group that remains untouched Blind studies

10 Quasi experimental study
In which one characteristic of a true experiment is missing, either randomization or the use of a separate control group.

11 Aims of research To achieve health for all
Necessary changes require detailed and accurate information regarding Needs Possibilities Consequences of any recommended action Decision on health

12 Aims of research To assess magnitude of the problems
To guide planning of national, regional and local health programs To evaluate health activities To study community perceptions and attitudes related to health and disease To evaluate degree of utilization of health care services and facilities To provide data for planning, evaluation and health educational activities To suggest and test hypothesis on health related health events and disease conditions

13 Research Why is research being undertaken?
Where will it be carried out? Who all will be covered by the research? When will be carried out? What variables to be addressed in the research? Inclusion and exclusion of variables Instruments used, standardization Schedule of survey activities Training of researchers Cross checks or supervision Analysis of data

14 Research topic Interesting Relevance Avoidance of duplication
Feasibility Political acceptability Applicability Cost effectiveness Ethical consideration

15 Objective An objective is an intent, communicated by a statement describing the plan of the researcher in clear measurable terms. This is done so the researcher has an clear idea / understanding of exactly which variables to investigate and what type of data is dealing with. An objective can clearly indicate the study design and statistics involved.

16 Objective Help you to Focus the study
Avoid collection of data that is not necessary for understanding and solving problem you have identified Organize study in clearly defined parts Get a clear understanding what type of data is involved Get an idea of an appropriate design of study

17 Population A set of all individuals or objects having some common observable characteristics. Population Universe

18 Sample: A subset or part of the population is a sample from that population. ADVANTAGES: Reduce cost of study Study can be done in less time. Greater accuracy Drawing sample can increase scope of study Destructive tests can be applied to a smaller population.

19 Sampling units These are the break down of the population into smaller parts which are distinct, un-ambiguous and non overlapping so that each element of the population belongs to one and only one sampling unit. Listing of all sampling units e.g. individuals, schools, households is called sampling frame.

20 Sample A representative sample is the one with which we can draw valid inference regarding the population parameters. Sample helps to estimate: Mean of some measurement Proportion of population with some characteristic.

21 Sampling Probability sampling: Non probability sampling
Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling Cluster sampling Stratified sampling Non probability sampling Convenience sampling Purposive sampling Quota sampling Snow ball sampling

22 Sample size estimation
Type of study Type of statistical analysis required Comparison of means Comparison of proportions Sample size must be enough large to yield significant results

23 Research 1.Selection of researchable topic
2.Formulation of research problem Statement of the problem Relevance of the problem Field of application 3.Search for related work 4.Statement of the objective 5.Selection of variables

24 Research Selection of variables 6.Formulation of a research hypothesis
Independent variables inputs, antecedent Dependent variables outcome, effect Confounding variable Back ground variables 6.Formulation of a research hypothesis

25 conti 7. Research methodology Research strategy Research setting
Sampling considerations Sampling method Sampling size Minimizing sampling errors Study instruments Description of data collection Pre-testing Pilot study Description of plans for data analysis and interpretation of results Ethical considerations

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