2 RESEARCH A systematic quest for undiscovered truth A way of thinking Is a manner of regarding accumulated facts by the researchers mind in term of what those data mean and what those facts sayA manner in which men and women solve the knotty problems in the attempt to push back the frontiers of ignorance.
3 RESEARCHIs the systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem.A systematic process aimed at obtaining new knowledge through verifiable examination of data and empirical testing of hypothesis.
4 BASIC RESEARCHIs necessary to improve the existing knowledge and generate new technologies to deal with major unresolved health problems.
5 APPLIED RESEARCHIt is necessary to identify priority problems and to design and evaluate policies and programs that will deliver the greatest health benefit, making optimal use of available resources.
6 Operations researchGathering information or knowledge for improving the health of the community or for improving the service delivery network.
7 Exploratory researchIt is a small scale study of relatively short duration, which is carried out when little is known about a situation or a problem.This is undertaken to formulate a more precise research problem or to develop a hypothesis
8 Descriptive studyInvolve the systematic collection and presentation of data to give a clear picture of a particular situation.Small and large scaleDescribes the characteristics of limited no. of cases.Provide useful insight into a problem.CROSS SECTIONAL study – quantifying the distribution of certain variables in a study population.Behaviour of the people – KAP studiesANALYTICAL REAEARCHQuantitative research methodsQualitative research methods
9 Intervention studiesThe researcher manipulates a situation and measures the effects of a manipulation.Usually two groups are compared,one in which intervention takes placeAnother group that remains untouchedBlind studies
10 Quasi experimental study In which one characteristic of a true experiment is missing, either randomization or the use of a separate control group.
11 Aims of research To achieve health for all Necessary changes require detailed and accurate information regardingNeedsPossibilitiesConsequences of any recommended actionDecision on health
12 Aims of research To assess magnitude of the problems To guide planning of national, regional and local health programsTo evaluate health activitiesTo study community perceptions and attitudes related to health and diseaseTo evaluate degree of utilization of health care services and facilitiesTo provide data for planning, evaluation and health educational activitiesTo suggest and test hypothesis on health related health events and disease conditions
13 Research Why is research being undertaken? Where will it be carried out?Who all will be covered by the research?When will be carried out?What variables to be addressed in the research?Inclusion and exclusion of variablesInstruments used, standardizationSchedule of survey activitiesTraining of researchersCross checks or supervisionAnalysis of data
14 Research topic Interesting Relevance Avoidance of duplication FeasibilityPolitical acceptabilityApplicabilityCost effectivenessEthical consideration
15 ObjectiveAn objective is an intent, communicated by a statement describing the plan of the researcher in clear measurable terms.This is done so the researcher has an clear idea / understanding of exactly which variables to investigate and what type of data is dealing with.An objective can clearly indicate the study design and statistics involved.
16 Objective Help you to Focus the study Avoid collection of data that is not necessary for understanding and solving problem you have identifiedOrganize study in clearly defined partsGet a clear understanding what type of data is involvedGet an idea of an appropriate design of study
17 PopulationA set of all individuals or objects having some common observable characteristics.PopulationUniverse
18 Sample:A subset or part of the population is a sample from that population.ADVANTAGES:Reduce cost of studyStudy can be done in less time.Greater accuracyDrawing sample can increase scope of studyDestructive tests can be applied to a smaller population.
19 Sampling unitsThese are the break down of the population into smaller parts which are distinct, un-ambiguous and non overlapping so that each element of the population belongs to one and only one sampling unit.Listing of all sampling units e.g. individuals, schools, households is called sampling frame.
20 SampleA representative sample is the one with which we can draw valid inference regarding the population parameters.Sample helps to estimate:Mean of some measurementProportion of population with some characteristic.
21 Sampling Probability sampling: Non probability sampling Simple random samplingSystematic random samplingCluster samplingStratified samplingNon probability samplingConvenience samplingPurposive samplingQuota samplingSnow ball sampling
22 Sample size estimation Type of studyType of statistical analysis requiredComparison of meansComparison of proportionsSample size must be enough large to yield significant results
23 Research 1.Selection of researchable topic 2.Formulation of research problemStatement of the problemRelevance of the problemField of application3.Search for related work4.Statement of the objective5.Selection of variables
24 Research Selection of variables 6.Formulation of a research hypothesis Independent variables inputs, antecedentDependent variables outcome, effectConfounding variableBack ground variables6.Formulation of a research hypothesis
25 conti 7. Research methodology Research strategy Research setting Sampling considerationsSampling methodSampling sizeMinimizing sampling errorsStudy instrumentsDescription of data collectionPre-testingPilot studyDescription of plans for data analysis and interpretation of resultsEthical considerations