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Qualitative Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Qualitative Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Qualitative Research

2 Qualitative Research Focuses on understanding from perspective of who & what is being studied. Rather than try to establish “objective” descriptions and relationships as quantitative research does, qualitative studies are based on the assumption that reality is subjective and dependent on context There are “multiple realities’ that need to be described in detail to result in a complete and deep understanding of the phenomena being investigated

3 Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Search for meaning Constructed reality Natural settings Rich narrative description Direct data collection Concern with process Inductive data analysis Participant perspectives Emergent research design

4 Quantitative? Qualitative?
Quantitative—involves use of numerical indices to summarize, describe and explore relationships among traits—reliance on control, statistics, measurements, and experiments Qualitative—emphasis is on conducting studies in natural settings using mostly verbal descriptions, resulting in stories and case studies, not statistical reports

5 Qualitative Research Designs
Ethnography Involves direct engagement with participants & environments--immersion into the culture In-depth description & interpretation of behavior within a culture or social group Start with a straightforward description of the setting and events--no footnotes, just facts Analysis--search for “patterned regularities” in the data Conclusions are based on a synthesis of the data

6 Qualitative Research Designs
Case study In-depth analysis of one or more “bounded systems” A case is study is“ exploration of a bounded system or a case (or multiple cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context.” Creswell (1998) “A qualitative case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single instance, phenomenon or social unit.” Stake (1994)

7 Case study Some examples of cases are... an innovative program
all schools in Sweden a classroom graduate students at KSU

8 Case study What is the intent of the case study?
Descriptive case study: to give a detailed account Interpretive case study: to develop conceptual categories–to illustrate, support or challenge theoretical assumptions Evaluative case study: description, explanation, and judgment; good to use when you can’t evaluate using normal standards

9 Qualitative Research Designs
Phenomenology Examines experiences & perceptions of participants Purpose: to understand the essence, the meaning of participants’ perspectives Discovery oriented: focuses on a systematic investigation of the content of consciousness (Van Manen, 1990) Researchers seek the essential, invariant structures, or the research participants’ consistent patterns of relating to the world, as well as the essence of the central underlying meaning of experience. (McPhail, 1995)

10 Qualitative Research Designs
Grounded Theory Purpose: to discover or generate a theory about a specific entity or phenomenon Grounded in data from the field, especially in actions, interactions, & social processes of people The primary outcome of the study is a theory with specific components: a central phenomenon, causal conditions, strategies, conditions and context, and consequences. Usually the theory is related through a model

11 Qualitative Research Designs
Critical Studies Designed to provide alternative perspectives on contemporary societal problems Focus: exposing social manipulation & oppressive social structures to advocate changes in social systems Researcher approaches research with the belief that his/her assumptions are important determinants of what is perceived & concluded Used with critical, postmodern, racial, feminist theory

12 Information is gathered from…
Individuals Groups Documents Existing data bases and Other sources

13 Steps in research (may vary depending on the nature of the study)
Frame the initial question or problem Determine what previous research says about the question or problem Frame research questions Design a plan for collecting data to address the question or problem Analyze the results of gathered data Generate conclusions

14 Internal Validity Revolves around the issue of CREDIBILITY, the extent to which the data, data analysis, and results are accurate and trustworthy Threats to credibility: Instrumentation and researcher bias

15 Reliability & Validity in Qualitative Studies
Reliability: extent to which what is recorded is what actually occurred Validity: fit between intent of research and what was actually studied Validity enhanced by good rapport with participants, unobstrusive observation, participant selection methods, repeated patterns, detail, depth of analysis

16 Enhancing Credibility
Triangulation Member checking Cross-examination of evidence (Peer Review)

17 External Validity Transferability/translatability/ comparability
You cannot generalize in qualitative research

18 Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research
What is the problem? Clearly stated? Reformulated after data collection? Is theoretical framework clear? Does lit review relate importance of research? Any researcher bias? How well addressed? Participants & selection addressed? Observations? How well was it done? Was data collection addressed? Duration? Intensity? Multiple methods? Are credibility issues addressed? Are findings clear? Make sense? Detailed? Do conclusions & interpretations follow logically? Rich, thick description? Quotes? Sufficient detail to discern transferability?

19 Groupwork Instructions
In groups, answer the following questions on pp # 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 Fill out the Credibility Scorecard on p. 127

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