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Introduction to Research Methodology

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1 Introduction to Research Methodology

2 INTRODUCTION Research is “Search of knowledge”- It is a scientific and systematic search for relevant information on specific topic” According to Oxford Dictionary, “A careful inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge” According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

3 Research is an organized set of activities to study and develop a model of procedure technique to find the result of a realistic problem supported by literature and data such that its objectives are maximised

4 SOME TERMINOLOGIES Data: Measurement of records of facts made under specific conditions Hypothesis: tentative assumption of the study or expected results of the study Independent variable: The part of the experiment that the researcher is manipulating; also called experimental or treatment variable. Dependent variable: The effect of the Independent variable

5 SOME TERMINOLOGIES Population: A total number of subjects which they abide the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Review: A research paper that is a critical evaluation of research on a particular topic. Research proposal / Synopsis: A formal preparation that includes introduction, review of literature and proposed method of conducting study.

6 What is Research Methodology?
Is defined as a highly intellectual human activity used in the investigation of nature and matter and deals specifically with the manner in which data is collected, analyzed and interpreted A system of models, procedures and techniques used to find the result of a research problem is called research methodology

To gain familiarity with a phenomenon To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else To identify the casual relationship between variables

8 Attributes of Good Research Study
OBJECTIVE: A good research must answer the research question. CONTROL: A good research must be able to control all variables. GENERALISABILITY: Generate similar result when used other method. BIAS FREE: Research should be free from personal bias. It should be based on objective and not on subjective matter. SYSTEMATIC: A good research study must have various well planned steps, i.e. all steps must be interrelated and one step should lead to another step.

Descriptive research Analytical research Applied research Basic research Quantitative research Qualitative research Conceptual research

10 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Surveys & fact finding enquiries of different kinds Purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. Researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.

11 ANALYTICAL RESEARCH Involves indebt study and evaluation of available information in an attempt to explain complex phenomenon. The researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.

Related to some abstract ideas / theory experiment Attempt to establish cause and effect relationship

13 OBJECTIVE: Should enable to classify facts accurately.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD The application of valid & reliable research methods is called scientific method. It has three distinct characteristics. OBJECTIVE: Should enable to classify facts accurately. ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT: Only collection of facts will not be sufficient, it must be able to make observations of the correlation and sequence, which can be derived as desired results. SELF CRITICISM: Should critically examine the research as the study done is not sure that they have found truth.

14 Management Research Three factors stimulates decision;
IMPORTANCE OF RSEARCH IN MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT Three factors stimulates decision; The managers increased need for more and better information. The availability of improve techniques and tools to meet this need. The resulting information overload.

Common uses of research in decision making ; Marketing Research: Product Research – Assessment of suitability of goods with respect to design and price. Market Characteristics Research (Qualitative) – Who uses the product? How product is used, shopping habits, units in which product is purchased…. Size of Market (Quantitative) – Market potential, total sales quota sales & advertising efforts etc… Sales research – Analysis sales record New product lunching..

Government policies & economics system: It helps in examining the consequence of changes coming in economic condition. Solving Operational & Planning Problems : Helps in deciding forecasting which helps in efficient production and investment programmes such as purchasing & financial plans which effect the Profit and Loss account Social Relationships : Helps people earn their livelihood It helps students to know and write and report various findings. It may help researchers, in general, to generalize a new theories..

17 MANAGEMENT RESEARCH….. Management Research as follows….
The systematic and objective process of generating information for aid in making management decisions The aim is to obtain an in-depth understanding of the particular subject. Rising competition has compelled many organizations to conduct market research. Organizations may conduct research themselves, by appointing a research team to work on the same.

Few Management Approaches are as follows…. Pure & Basic Research; Its basic purpose is to enhance knowledge and understanding. Objective Research; Frames certain clear objectives and hypothesis and then tests the validity of established knowledge with the situation / issue. Evaluative Research; In this the research, in contrast assess some aspect of the organizational function by analyzing the effectiveness of given issue. Applies Research; This type is more of solving a particular problem within the organization.

19 What is Literature Review?
To see what has and has not been investigated. To develop general explanation for observed variation in behavior or phenomenon. To learn how others have defined and measured key concepts. To develop alternative research project. To discover how a research project is releated to work of others.


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