1 Lesson 5 – Logical Framework Approach (LFA) EVPPAmy E. Duray1 February 2010
2 IntroductionPurpose: Introduce basic structure and key components of LFA used in international development settingsResources:UNSIAP Presentation, “Results-Based Management: Logical Framework Approach,” 28 – 30 September, 2005, accessed January 26, 2010 at: mes.pptWorld Bank (n.d.) The Logframe Handbook: A Logical Framework Approach to Project Cycle Management, Washington, DC, accessed January 31, 2010 at: oc/LFhandbook.pdf
3 Logical Framework Approach (LFA) The LFA is a Results Based Management tool used for systematic planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating projects or programs.In use, in some form, in many global development and environment organizations: USAID, DFID(UK), World Bank, UNDP, UNEP, GEFSimilar terminology: Results FrameworkCreated in 1969 by USAID.Became widely used in the bilateral donor community in 70s and 80s.
4 The Logical Framework Approach Features of LFA :stakeholder involvementneeds-based approachlogical intervention approachframework for assessing relevance, feasibility and sustainabilityresults-oriented – not activity drivenlogically sets objectives and their causal relationshipsshows whether objectives have been achieved: Indicators (for Monitoring & Evaluation)describes external factors that influence the project’s success: assumptions and risks
5 LFA Main Steps Stakeholder Analysis SWOT Analysis Problem Tree AnalysisObjective Tree AnalysisLogical Framework MatrixMonitoring and evaluation
6 Stakeholder AnalysisDefinition: Stakeholder is any individuals, group or organization, community, with an interest in the outcome of a project.Purpose: To identify:The needs and interest of stakeholdersThe organizations, groups that should be encouraged to participate in different stages of the project;Potential risks to the programOpportunities in implementing a program
7 SWOT AnalysisDefinition: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and ThreatsPurpose:To assess the performance and capacity of the participating units, divisions of organization.Each participating unit has to undertake SWOT analysis, with the goal of self-appraisal and brainstorming
8 Problem Tree AnalysisPurpose: identify major problems and their main causal relationships.Output: Problem tree with cause and effectsProcess:Identify the major problems that the project will address. State problems in negative manner.Group problems by similarity of concerns.Develop the problem tree:Select a focal problem from the list and relate other problems to the focal problem.If the problem is a cause of the focal problem it is placed below the focal problemIf the problem is an effect of the focal problem is goes above
10 Objective Tree Analysis Transforming the problem tree into an objectives tree by restating the problems as objectives.Problem statement converted in to positive statementsTop of the tree is the end that is desiredLower levels are the means to achieving the end.
12 The relationship between the problems tree and the objective tree PROBLEM TREE OBJECTIVE TREEFocal problem Project PurposeEffects Overall ObjectivesCauses Results
13 The Logframe Matrix The main output of the LFA is the logframe matrix. The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, outputs and activities in a systematic and logical way.The basic Logframe matrix contains 16 cells organized into 4 columns and 4 rows, as indicated in the next slide:September, Putrajaya, Malaysia
14 What needs to be fulfilled before activities can start The Logical Framework MatrixObjectives & activitiesIndicatorsMeans of verificationAssumptionsGoal(Impact)Purpose/ (Outcome)OutputsActivitiesWhat needs to be fulfilled before activities can startPre-conditions
15 Monitoring and Evaluation Purpose: The continuous process of collecting, processing and assessing information about the:Project implementationProject progressProject impact and effectsDefinitions:Monitoring: Are you achieving the results you are expecting?Evaluation: Time specific assessments of the relevance, success and effectiveness of your plan.Monitoring:Assumes the validity of the existing planTakes place at project levelIs the responsibility of the project managementIs based on the indicators defined in the logical framework
16 Monitoring and Evaluation Based on the logical frameworkStrengthens accountability and transparencyProvides information for effective managementHelps determine what works well and what requires improvementBuilds knowledge
17 Advantages of the LFA Method Systemic, logical analysis of interrelated elementsLinkages are clearly establishedCommon terminology and methodology among all partiesContinuity over timeSuccess can be replicatedComparative studies
18 Disadvantages of the LFA Method Risk of applying the framework too rigidly and losing creativity and innovationBalancing results with taking the opportunity to improve processesCannot capture all things