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Lesson 5 – Logical Framework Approach (LFA)

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1 Lesson 5 – Logical Framework Approach (LFA)
EVPP Amy E. Duray 1 February 2010

2 Introduction Purpose: Introduce basic structure and key components of LFA used in international development settings Resources: UNSIAP Presentation, “Results-Based Management: Logical Framework Approach,” 28 – 30 September, 2005, accessed January 26, 2010 at: mes.ppt World Bank (n.d.) The Logframe Handbook: A Logical Framework Approach to Project Cycle Management, Washington, DC, accessed January 31, 2010 at: oc/LFhandbook.pdf

3 Logical Framework Approach (LFA)
The LFA is a Results Based Management tool used for systematic planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating projects or programs. In use, in some form, in many global development and environment organizations: USAID, DFID(UK), World Bank, UNDP, UNEP, GEF Similar terminology: Results Framework Created in 1969 by USAID. Became widely used in the bilateral donor community in 70s and 80s.

4 The Logical Framework Approach
Features of LFA : stakeholder involvement needs-based approach logical intervention approach framework for assessing relevance, feasibility and sustainability results-oriented – not activity driven logically sets objectives and their causal relationships shows whether objectives have been achieved: Indicators (for Monitoring & Evaluation) describes external factors that influence the project’s success: assumptions and risks

5 LFA Main Steps Stakeholder Analysis SWOT Analysis
Problem Tree Analysis Objective Tree Analysis Logical Framework Matrix Monitoring and evaluation

6 Stakeholder Analysis Definition: Stakeholder is any individuals, group or organization, community, with an interest in the outcome of a project. Purpose: To identify: The needs and interest of stakeholders The organizations, groups that should be encouraged to participate in different stages of the project; Potential risks to the program Opportunities in implementing a program

7 SWOT Analysis Definition: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Purpose: To assess the performance and capacity of the participating units, divisions of organization. Each participating unit has to undertake SWOT analysis, with the goal of self-appraisal and brainstorming

8 Problem Tree Analysis Purpose: identify major problems and their main causal relationships. Output: Problem tree with cause and effects Process: Identify the major problems that the project will address. State problems in negative manner. Group problems by similarity of concerns. Develop the problem tree: Select a focal problem from the list and relate other problems to the focal problem. If the problem is a cause of the focal problem it is placed below the focal problem If the problem is an effect of the focal problem is goes above

9 Problem Tree Example EFFECT CAUSE

10 Objective Tree Analysis
Transforming the problem tree into an objectives tree by restating the problems as objectives. Problem statement converted in to positive statements Top of the tree is the end that is desired Lower levels are the means to achieving the end.

11 Objectives Tree * Ends Means

12 The relationship between the problems tree and the objective tree
PROBLEM TREE OBJECTIVE TREE Focal problem Project Purpose Effects Overall Objectives Causes Results

13 The Logframe Matrix The main output of the LFA is the logframe matrix.
The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, outputs and activities in a systematic and logical way. The basic Logframe matrix contains 16 cells organized into 4 columns and 4 rows, as indicated in the next slide: September, Putrajaya, Malaysia

14 What needs to be fulfilled before activities can start
The Logical Framework Matrix Objectives & activities Indicators Means of verification Assumptions Goal (Impact) Purpose/ (Outcome) Outputs Activities What needs to be fulfilled before activities can start Pre-conditions

15 Monitoring and Evaluation
Purpose: The continuous process of collecting, processing and assessing information about the: Project implementation Project progress Project impact and effects Definitions: Monitoring: Are you achieving the results you are expecting? Evaluation: Time specific assessments of the relevance, success and effectiveness of your plan. Monitoring: Assumes the validity of the existing plan Takes place at project level Is the responsibility of the project management Is based on the indicators defined in the logical framework

16 Monitoring and Evaluation
Based on the logical framework Strengthens accountability and transparency Provides information for effective management Helps determine what works well and what requires improvement Builds knowledge

17 Advantages of the LFA Method
Systemic, logical analysis of interrelated elements Linkages are clearly established Common terminology and methodology among all parties Continuity over time Success can be replicated Comparative studies

18 Disadvantages of the LFA Method
Risk of applying the framework too rigidly and losing creativity and innovation Balancing results with taking the opportunity to improve processes Cannot capture all things

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