INSTITUTO DE ESTUDIOS POLÍTICOS PARA ÁMERICA LATINA Y ÁFRICA LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH HUMANA.
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INSTITUTO DE ESTUDIOS POLÍTICOS PARA ÁMERICA LATINA Y ÁFRICA LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH HUMANA
THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH (LFA) PARTNERSHIP WORKSHOP IN HORSNSJOE September 14 - 15, 2006
The Logical Framework is a method, a way of structuring the main elements in a project, highlighting logical linkages between intended inputs, planned activities, expected results and objectives. Functions of the LFA: * Provides methodology for planning * Provides framework for monitoring * Provides baseline for evaluation Basic principle: * Concise * Free-standing document * Participation of beneficiaries * Basis for subsequent monitoring and evaluation The Logical Framework Approach
Logical Framework Approach and the Project Cycle
Situational Analysis It is the analysis of key issues affecting ecosystems, people, and institutions in a given geographic context at any level. Elements: * Stakeholder Analysis * Problem Analysis * Objective Analysis * Selection of Preferred Implementation Strategy Product: Identification of key issues, problems, and opportunities that can form the basis of relevant programme and/or project iniciatives
Stakeholder Analysis Identification of project stakeholders, their roles and interests: * Partners: governmental agencies, local governments, NGOs, grassoots organizations and others. * Targets: men/women; rich/poor; young/old; small scale/large scale farmers; rural/urban dwellers; landowners/landless; farmers/traders. Identification of the extent of cooperation or conflict between stakeholders
Problem Analysis Purpose: To identify the major problems and their main causes and effects. Output: Design problem tree with the cause and effect logic between problems Steps: 1. Identify the major problems that the project will address 2. Group problems by similarity of concerns 3. Develop the problem tree: * Select a focal problem and relate other problems to the focal problem * If the problem is a cause of the focal problem it is placed below the focal problem * If the problem is an effect of the focal problem goes above State problems in negative manner
Objectives Analysis Purpose: To identify the main objectives of the project Output: Design objective tree based on problem tree, showing “means and end” logic between objectives, where: * Top of the tree is the end that is desired * Lower levels are the means to achieving the end Steps: 1. Identify the problems that will be solved by the project 2. Transform the problem tree into an objectives tree by restating the problems as objectives. 3. Problem statement are converted into positive statements 4. Develop the narrative part of the LFA Matrix
Objectives Tree End Means End Specific objective
Relationship between Problem Tree and Objectives Tree Problem treeObjective tree Focal problemSpecific objectives EffectsOverall objectives CausesResults
Strategies Analysis Purpose: division of the objectives tree into more consistent smaller subunits that may compose the core for the future. Each sub-unit can represent an alternative strategy. Criteria for selection of the project strategy: * Relevance * Effectiveness * Efficiency * Consistency * Sustainability * Assumptions and risks
Project Planning and Logframe Matrix A Logframe matrix is a table that presents the information about the project in a structured, summarized format. It is used to present information about project objectives, results and activities in a systematic and logical way. Timeframe: 2 to 5 years The LFA matrix can help planners to: * Analyse the existing situation during project preparation * Establish a logical hierarchy of means by which objectives will be reached * Identify the potential risks to achieving the objectives, and to sustainable outcomes * Present a summary of the project in a standard format
LFA Matrix Format and Sequence Narrative Description IndicatorsMeans of verifcation Assumptions Overall objective Specific objective Expected results Activities MeansCosts What needs to be fulfilled before activities can start? What the project would like to achieve? How do we know that the objectives and results are (being) achieved? How do we collect the data? What are the factors that could affect achievement of objectives? 1st2nd3rd4th Pre-conditions
Specific Results Teminology for Different Donors European Union World BankUSAIDCIDANORAD / DFIDNetherlands Overall objective Development objective Strategic objectve ImpactGoalDevelopment objective Specific objective Project development objective Intermediate results OutcomesPurposeImmediate objective Expected results OutputsProject level intemediate result Outputs Activities
Narrative Description of objectives, results and activities Narrative DescriptionIndicatorsMeans of verifcation Assumptions Overall objective Wider problem the project will help to resolve. The ultimate result to which your project is contributing – the impact of the project at a national or sectoral level. Language convention: use past or present tense Specific objective The immediate impact on the project area or target group. i.e. the change or benefit to be achieved by the project. What the project is expected to achieve in terms of sustainable development outcome at the end. Language convention: use past or present tense Expected results The specifically intended outputs of the project activities – used as milestones of what has been accomplished at various stages during the life of the project. The specific outputs and tangible products. Language convention: use past or present tense Activities The specific tasks that must be undertaken to achieve the required outputs. Language convention: use the infinitive What the project would like to achieve?
Assumptions / Risks Narrative Description IndicatorsMeans of verifcation Assumptions Overall objective External factors necessary to sustein objectives in the long run. Specific objective External conditions necessary if achieved project purpose is to contribute to reaching project overall objective. Assumptions concerning the overall objective/specific objective linkage Expected results Factors out of project control which, if present, could restrict progress from outputs to achieving project specific objective. Assumptions concerning the results/specific objective linkage Activities Factors out of project control which, if present, could restrict progress from activities to achieving results. Assumptions concerning the activity/results linkage What are the factors that could affectachievement of objectives?
Means and Cost of Activities how to do it? with whom? what resources do we need? at what cost? MEANS (EU): Human resources (technical and administrative staff, perdiems for missions/travels); Travel (local and international transportation); Equipment and supplies (vehicles, furniture, computer equipment, machines, tools, etc.); Local office (vehicle maintenance, office rent, consumables, office supplies, other services such as tel/fax, electricity/heating, maintenance, etc.); Other technical services such as publications, studies, research, auditing, evaluation, translation, financial services, seminars, etc. COSTS of resources Narrative Description IndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Overall objective Specific objective Expected results Activities MEANSCOSTS
Indicators Narrative Description IndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Overall objective Quantitative ways of measuring or qualitative ways of judging timed achievement of overall objective. Measures of the extent to which a sustainable contibution to the overall objective has been made. Specific objective Quantitative ways of measuring or qualitative ways of judging timed achievement of specific objective. Measures of the extent to which specific objectives have been achieved and lead to sustainable benefits. Expected results Quantitative ways of measuring or qualitative ways of judging timed achievement of results. Measures of the quantity and quality of outputs and the timing of their delivery. Activities INPUTS. The resources required to undertake the activities. This is a summary of the project budget. How do we know that the objectives and results are (being) achieved?
Means of verification Narrative Description IndicatorsMeans of verificationAssumptions Overall objective Sources of information and methods used to collect and report it. Cost-effective methods to quantify or assess indicators. Specific objective Sources of information and methods used to collect and report it. Cost-effective methods to quantify or assess indicators. Expected results Sources of information and methods used to collect and report it. Cost-effective methods to quantify or assess indicators. Activities Financial out-turn report as agreed in gran agreement. How do we collect the data?