7 Why Project Cycle Management ? Results-oriented – not activity drivenConsistencyLogically sets objectives and actionsParticipatory stakeholder involvementTransparencyShows whether objectives have been achieved: Indicators (for M&E)Framework for assessing relevance, feasibility and sustainabilityDescribes external factors that influence the project’s success: assumptions and risks
8 History of PCM Method Late 1960s Logical Framework (USAID) ➢ International Agencies introduce the LogframeEarly 1980s ZOPP (GTZ) Objectives-Oriented Project Planning➢ European countries adapt the ZOPPEarly 1990s PCM(FASID/EC)
10 PDM Vertical Logic Overall Goal Project Purpose Outputs Activities Direction that the project should take nextProject Purpose Objectives that the project should achieve within the project durationOutputsStrategies for achieving the Project PurposeActivitiesSpecific actions taken to produce OutputsImportant AssumptionsConditions important for project success, but that cannot be controlled by the projects. Whether these conditions develop or not is uncertain.
11 PDM Horizontal LogicObjectively Verifiable IndicatorsStandards for measuring project achievement.Means of VerificationData sources from which indicators are derived.Inputshuman resource, materials, equipments, facilities and funds required by the project.PreconditionsConditions that must be fulfilled before a project gets underway
12 8 Steps for PDM in PCM Stakeholder Analysis SWOT Analysis Problem AnalysisObjective AnalysisProject SelectionProject Design Matrix (PDM)WorkplanMonitoring and Evaluation
13 STEP1 Stakeholders Analysis Stakeholder is any individual, group or organization, community, with an interest in the outcome of a programme/project.Key QuestionWhose problems or opportunities are we analyzing? Who will benefit or loose-out, and how, from a potential project intervention?
14 STEP2 SWOT AnalysisSWOT analysis is a tool for institutional appraisal and a brainstorming exercise in which the representatives of the organization participate fully.This is to Assess the performance and capacity of the units or divisions of a organization
15 STEP3 Problems Analysis Problems Analysis visually shows the causes and effects of existing problems in the project area, in the form of a Problem Tree. It clarifies the relationships among the identified problems.
16 STEP4 Objectives Analysis Objective Analysis clarifies the means-ends relationship between the desirable situation that would be attained and the solution for attaining it. This stage also requires an Objective Tree.
17 STEP5 Project Selection Project Selection is a process in which specific project strategies are selected from among the objectives and means raised in Objectives Analysis, based upon selection criteria.
18 STEP6 Formation of the PDM The project design Matrix (PDM) is formed through elaborating the major project components and plans based on the approach selected. The format of PDM is similar to that of the Logical Framework, and therefore can be commonly used worldwide.Narrative SummaryObjectively Verifiable IndicatorsMeans of VerificationImportantAssumptionsOverall GoalProject PurposeOutputsActivitiesInputsPre-conditions
19 STEP7 Workplan / Plan of Operations The Plan of Operation is prepared by the project implementers, based on the PDM and other information. It is an effective tool for project implementation and management, and provides important data for monitoring and evaluation of the project.
20 STEP 8 Monitoring and Evaluation WHY DO WE HAVE TO DO THIS?Strengthens accountability and transparencyProvides information for effective managementHelps determine what works well and what requires improvementBuilds knowledge