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Developing the Logical Frame Work …………….

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Presentation on theme: "Developing the Logical Frame Work ……………."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing the Logical Frame Work …………….
Murali Krishna Public Health Foundation of India

2 Learning objectives After this lecture participants will be able to
Understand the difference between LFA and LFM build a logical framework matrix/PPM/Log frame

3 Are we speaking like this ?
Project Planning Matrix Logical frame work matrix Logical frame work Analysis Log frame

4 Are we making u like this?

5 LFA and Logical Framework Matrix
LFA is a project preparation methodology LFM is a document with a special structure, produced as the result of LFA. LFA is the process and LFM is the product. LFM is sometimes called Project Planning Matrix (PPM)/ Log Frame

6 Why LFA in projects? It takes the planners through a series of steps to define clearly what the project or program will accomplish and how It provides in-depth analysis of project objectives, outputs, and activities. It provides a structured, logical approach to setting priorities and determining the intended results and activities of a project. It helps to identify possible risks to project implementation. It uses Quantity, Quality and Time indicators FOR measuring achievement of objectives It provides a useful basis for project appraisal

7 Steps in LFA LFA consists of 4 steps: Situation analysis
Strategy Analysis Project Planning Matrix Implementation Participation of the stakeholders is a prerequisite

8 1. Situation Analysis The analysis phase is the most critical, yet most difficult, phase of the log frame approach. The analysis phase consists of three stages Stakeholder analysis: Identify biases, expectations, and concerns of the people, groups, or organizations that may influence or be influenced by the problem or a potential solution to the problem. Problem analysis Objective analysis

9 b. Problem Analysis Identify the root cause and effects of the problem: Cause and effect link Problem Tree Method Effect Effect Main Problem Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause

10 c. Objective Analysis Build on ‘Problem Tree’: The negative statements
It is ‘Objective Tree’: The positive statements ‘Means-Ends’ relationship

11 2. Strategy Analysis

12 Strategy Analysis A strategy analysis (also known as or alternatives analysis) involves an analysis of the ‘objective tree’. Each of the ‘roots’ is examined as a possible means of strategy for achieving the core objective of the project. Criteria are selected by which each possible strategy is to be judged and, either through a ‘ranking system’ or a consensus through discussion,

13 3. LFM: Introduction The logical framework Matrix was developed in the late 1960s to assist the US Agency of International Development (USAID) as a tool for: Detailed planning with clearly defined objectives that can be monitored Clear management responsibility Pre-determined evaluation process

14 Terminology Inputs Process Outcome (output, effect & impact)
Objectives and goal

15 (immediate results in numbers)
System framework Inputs Process Outcomes Effect Impact Output Goal (planned impacts) Targets (immediate results in numbers) Objectives (Coverage)

16 The M & E framework (logic model)
Monitoring and Evaluation INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT EFFECT Monitoring Evaluation if we can attribute of inputs/process Resources put into a program Activities which convert program inputs to outputs Products or services produced by program OBJECTIVE

17 The logical framework matrix
Also known as the log frame Provides the documented product of the analytical process It consists of a matrix with four columns and four rows (or more), which summarize the key elements of a project plan The project's hierarchy of objectives Project description or intervention logic The key external factors critical to the project’s success Assumptions How the project’s achievements will be monitored and evaluated Indicators and sources of verification

18 Logical Framework (Log Frame)
The Goal refers to the overall problem we are trying to address The Summary outlines the project’s objectives: what it hopes to achieve and how. What outputs are needed to achieve the Purpose? What change or benefit we want the project to achieve so that the goal can be reached How will the outputs be delivered or produced


20 General sequence of completion

21 Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Filling tips: There should be only one or two purposes The main problem gives the project Purpose The “causes” help in identifying the Outputs and Activities Eg. What causes (outputs) increased immunization coverage (Purpose) Use the “If Then” test to ensure logical links Working from Activities as IF the activity was carried out THEN will the output be produced/result. Similarly for other levels

22 Log Frame – Filling the matrix (e g Measles immunization)
SUMMARY INDICATORS EVIDENCE / SOURCE OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS GOAL Decrease incidence and mortality from measles OBJECTIVE Increased coverage of measles immunization (MV) OUTPUTS (1) Increased awareness about MV (2) Increased number of vaccination days (3) Increased availability of MV at health centers

23 Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Assumptions/Risks: We can never be 100% sure that the activities we plan or outputs the project will produce will actually happen. This because we live in a world of uncertainties. The log frame explicitly acknowledges this. Risks which can affect planned activities and expected outcomes include: Climate changes (floods, rain, drought etc.) Health worker strikes or bandhs Fluctuations in the economy or changes in economic policy Changes in government policy Contractors not fulfilling obligations

24 Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Assumptions/Risks: Starting with each activity, list the potential and plausible risks which might prevent it from being carried out. Rank the risks in order of importance and select only the most important ones (e.g. top two or three) Write these risks into the Assumption column. Since risks are typically negatively worded, you might consider writing it as a positive statement such that it reads like an assumption. For example – Risk : Health workers are not willing to work Assumption: Health workers are willing to work If there is a risk reducing measure available then it is important to include it as an activity since this will ensure greater success of the project. Check the logic of your assumptions using the “IF – AND – THEN’ technique

25 Assessment of assumptions

26 Log Frame – Filling the matrix
SUMMARY INDICATORS EVIDENCE ASSUMPTIONS ACTIVITIES 1.1 Train CHW about importance of MV CHW apply the training 1.2 Conduct IEC campaign for MV Community responds to IEC 2.1 Recruit CHWs CHWs come regularly to work Incentives adequate for accepting job 2.2 Inform community about additional vaccination day Community responds to additional day 3.1 Establish functional cold chain Cold chain is maintained 3.2 Train health center staff in better logistic mgmt. Health workers apply the training AND

27 Log Frame – Filling the matrix
SUMMARY INDICATORS EVIDENCE ASSUMPTIONS GOAL Decrease incidence and mortality from measles PURPOSE Increased coverage of measles immunization (MV) Mortality due to measles MV are effective OUTPUTS (1) Increased awareness about MV (2) Increased number of vaccination days (3) Increased availability of MV at health centers MV is culturally acceptable Additional vaccination days made use of by communities Additional vaccines used THEN

28 Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Indicators COVERED IN EARLIER Evidence (Means of Verification) the type of data needed, such as a survey the source of the data – whether secondary (collected by someone else) or primary (collected by our organisation) frequency and dates of data collection. For example, monthly, quarterly, annually.

29 Data sources Source: Adapted from MEASURE Evaluation( 2007). M&E Fundamentals - A Self-Guided Minicourse.

30 Exercise

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