2 What is Energy? Energy is the capacity to work or engage in activity. Where do we get energy?What foods yield energy?Do all nutrients provide the same amount of energy?What happens when you take in too much energy?
3 How Much Energy Do You Need? A person’s energy needs are determined by a combination of:Basal metabolic rate (BMR)Physical activityThermic energy - the amount of energy used to digest food and store/release energy
5 What Factors Affect BMR? AgeBMR burns approximately 1 calorie per minuteThis rate slows by approximately 1% each yr. after age 25 yrs.Body temperatureCooler environments cause BMR to speed upNutritional statusBody compositionMuscle is more active than fat tissue and burns more caloriesSlowing of BMR as one ages means that it becomes easier to gain weight. Growing children need more energy per unit of body weight than adults.
6 All calories come from these three nutrients The BasicsProteinsCarbohydratesFatsSodiumVitamins and mineralsWaterAll calories come from these three nutrients
7 Energy Carbohydrates and proteins each yield four calories per gram. Fats yield nine calories per gram.
14 Childhood ObesityStrategies for addressing children’s weight problems:Increasing physical activity is often effectiveMaking healthy dietary changes to include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lower fat foodsReplacing sugary drinks with waterBeing a positive role modelNot using food as a reward or punishment
17 CDC Obesity Trends BRFSS, 2010 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person)Source: cdc.govNo Data <10% %–14% %–19% %–24% %–29% ≥30%
18 BMI CalculationCalculate your BMI by going to and click on the “BMI Tables”.When you are finished, explore the links listed under “Aim for a Healthy Weight.”
19 Video QuizWhat strategies did the Cambridge school implement to increase children's acceptance of healthier food choices?How does gardening foster children's interest in healthy eating?What healthy food choices did you note during this video?What evidence did the school have to show that the changes they made were having a positive effect?Teach Source Video Transcript >>For the past 3 years the Cambridge Massachusetts school district has been waging an all out assault on fattening food, enticing kids with samples of new healthy fare, even turning 5th graders into farmers. What are your favorite foods that you are growing in the garden right now?>>Chives.>>Chives?>>Yeah, I think so.>>Why?>>I like the way it spices stuff.>>Yeah.>>The number of overweight kids here has been on the rise. Now it's dropped by 11% in 2 years; that's 140 kids.>>Just some very simple things like where we place, where we actually put the fruits and vegetables where the kids can reach them.>>This district has already done what the Government is recommending today, eliminating junkie snacks from school vending machines, [inaudible] and lunch lines. According to the new reports, tier 1 foods like fruits, veggies, whole grain snacks and small portions of 100% fruit juice should be available to all grades. But, tier 2 foods like baked chips and pretzels, animal and graham crackers and low fat ice cream bars under 200 calories should only be available to high schoolers and only after school hours. It says that snacks like fried potato chips and sodas, should never be sold at school, even at fundraisers.>> [Inaudible Speaker]>>School nutritionists say that today suggested guidelines should be made mandatory like the regulations for school lunches.>>There are 26 states that have different nutrition standards for these ala cart or competitive food items and it's a real challenge for industry.>>One thing that's clear in Cambridge, kids don't miss the fattening snacks, provided they have attractive alternatives. Nancy Cortez, CBS News, Cambridge Massachusetts.==== Transcribed by Automatic Sync Technologies ====
20 Case StudyThe dietitian at the Women, Infant, and Child (WIC) office met with Olivia's mother during their last clinic visit to discuss the importance of limiting Olivia's sugar and sugary drink intake. Although Olivia is only 5, she has already had extensive dental work because of tooth decay. The dentist has also counseled Olivia's mother about supervising her daughter's tooth brushing practices and eliminating refined sucrose from her diet.
21 Case StudyPlan a day's menu (including snacks) for Olivia that contains at least 150 grams of carbohydrates without any refined sucrose (table sugar). Use the following average amounts of carbohydrates:bread, cereals, pastas15 grams/slice or ouncefruits and juices10 grams/ ½ adult servingstarchy vegetablesmilk6 grams/ ½ cupANSWERS TO CASE STUDYA diet planned with the following number of servings from each of the MyPlate food groups would provide Olivia with 150 grams of carbohydrates and no added refined sugars:5 servings of bread, cereals, and pastas = 5 X 15 = 75 grams of carbohydrates3 servings of fruit and 100% fruit juice = 3 X 10 = 30 grams of carbohydrates3 servings of vegetables = 3 X = 30 grams of carbohydrates3 servings of milk = 3 X = 18 grams of carbohydratesTOTAL = 153 grams of carbohydratesAttention should be given to choices within each of the above food groups so that all of Olivia’s other nutrient needs are also being met.There are many snack alternatives (without refined sugar) that Olivia’s mother could serve, including cheese with crackers, peanut butter with apple slices, yogurt and fresh fruit, raw vegetables and cheese cubes, hummus and pita wedges, and tuna salad with a soft pretzel.
22 What nutrient-dense snack items would you suggest that Olivia's mother serve in place of those with refined sugars?