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Nutrients That Provide Energy (Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins)

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1 Nutrients That Provide Energy (Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins)
Chapter 13 Nutrients That Provide Energy (Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins) ©2015 Cengage Learning.

2 What is Energy? Energy is the capacity to work or engage in activity.
Where do we get energy? What foods yield energy? Do all nutrients provide the same amount of energy? What happens when you take in too much energy?

3 How Much Energy Do You Need?
A person’s energy needs are determined by a combination of: Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Physical activity Thermic energy - the amount of energy used to digest food and store/release energy

4 What is BMR? This is the amount of energy needed to perform involuntary body processes, such as: Breathing Blood circulation Heart beat Muscle tone Nerve activity Photo: © Cengage Learning BMR: Energy needed to carry on the body processes vital to life. For most children and adults the energy required to meet basal metabolic needs is greater than the energy expended for voluntary physical activity. Physical activity: increased p.a. will result in additional calories used Dietary thermogenesis this factor accounts for about 10% of the total energy requirement

5 What Factors Affect BMR?
Age BMR burns approximately 1 calorie per minute This rate slows by approximately 1% each yr. after age 25 yrs. Body temperature Cooler environments cause BMR to speed up Nutritional status Body composition Muscle is more active than fat tissue and burns more calories Slowing of BMR as one ages means that it becomes easier to gain weight. Growing children need more energy per unit of body weight than adults.

6 All calories come from these three nutrients
The Basics Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Sodium Vitamins and minerals Water All calories come from these three nutrients

7 Energy Carbohydrates and proteins each yield four calories per gram.
Fats yield nine calories per gram.

8 Children’s Energy Needs
Young children have a greater need for calories and essential nutrients than do adults because of: Rapid growth Faster metabolism Higher activity levels Photo: © Cengage Learning

9 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: Yield four calories (energy) per gram
Should make up 50 to 60 percent of one’s total daily calories Consist of two important groups: Starches, such as grains Sugars found in fruits, vegetables, and milk Images: © Cengage Learning

10 Fats Fats: Yield nine calories (energy) per gram
Should make up no more than 25 to 30 percent of one’s daily calories Are present in three forms: Saturated (animal-based) Unsaturated (plant-based) Cholesterol (primarily animal-based) Images: © Cengage Learning

11 Fats—They’re Everywhere!
Not all fat is bad or unhealthy. Fat provides calories for energy. Fat tastes good, it slows digestion, and it makes us feel satisfied longer after a meal. Dietary fats should not be restricted for children younger than two years. Photo: © Cengage Learning

12 Proteins Proteins: Provide four calories per gram
Yield energy, but are used primarily for building body tissue Rich sources include Fish, poultry, pork, and beef Eggs, cheese, and milk Peanut butter Dried peas, beans, lentils, and soybeans Images: © Cengage Learning

13 Childhood Obesity Is increasing at an alarming rate
Occurs when more calories are taken in than are used Contributing factors: Frequent consumption of high-fat foods: fast foods, low-density snacks, and sugary foods (bakery, fruit juices, and designer drinks) Sedentary lifestyle (inactivity) Photo: © Cengage Learning

14 Childhood Obesity Strategies for addressing children’s weight problems: Increasing physical activity is often effective Making healthy dietary changes to include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lower fat foods Replacing sugary drinks with water Being a positive role model Not using food as a reward or punishment

15 Obesity Trends Source:

16 Obesity Trends Source:

17 CDC Obesity Trends BRFSS, 2010
(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: No Data <10% %–14% %–19% %–24% %–29% ≥30%

18 BMI Calculation Calculate your BMI by going to and click on the “BMI Tables”. When you are finished, explore the links listed under “Aim for a Healthy Weight.”

19 Video Quiz What strategies did the Cambridge school implement to increase children's acceptance of healthier food choices? How does gardening foster children's interest in healthy eating? What healthy food choices did you note during this video? What evidence did the school have to show that the changes they made were having a positive effect? Teach Source Video Transcript >>For the past 3 years the Cambridge Massachusetts school district has been waging an all out assault on fattening food, enticing kids with samples of new healthy fare, even turning 5th graders into farmers. What are your favorite foods that you are growing in the garden right now? >>Chives. >>Chives? >>Yeah, I think so. >>Why? >>I like the way it spices stuff. >>Yeah. >>The number of overweight kids here has been on the rise. Now it's dropped by 11% in 2 years; that's 140 kids. >>Just some very simple things like where we place, where we actually put the fruits and vegetables where the kids can reach them. >>This district has already done what the Government is recommending today, eliminating junkie snacks from school vending machines, [inaudible] and lunch lines. According to the new reports, tier 1 foods like fruits, veggies, whole grain snacks and small portions of 100% fruit juice should be available to all grades. But, tier 2 foods like baked chips and pretzels, animal and graham crackers and low fat ice cream bars under 200 calories should only be available to high schoolers and only after school hours. It says that snacks like fried potato chips and sodas, should never be sold at school, even at fundraisers. >> [Inaudible Speaker] >>School nutritionists say that today suggested guidelines should be made mandatory like the regulations for school lunches. >>There are 26 states that have different nutrition standards for these ala cart or competitive food items and it's a real challenge for industry. >>One thing that's clear in Cambridge, kids don't miss the fattening snacks, provided they have attractive alternatives. Nancy Cortez, CBS News, Cambridge Massachusetts. ==== Transcribed by Automatic Sync Technologies ====

20 Case Study The dietitian at the Women, Infant, and Child (WIC) office met with Olivia's mother during their last clinic visit to discuss the importance of limiting Olivia's sugar and sugary drink intake. Although Olivia is only 5, she has already had extensive dental work because of tooth decay. The dentist has also counseled Olivia's mother about supervising her daughter's tooth brushing practices and eliminating refined sucrose from her diet.

21 Case Study Plan a day's menu (including snacks) for Olivia that contains at least 150 grams of carbohydrates without any refined sucrose (table sugar). Use the following average amounts of carbohydrates: bread, cereals, pastas 15 grams/slice or ounce fruits and juices 10 grams/ ½ adult serving starchy vegetables milk 6 grams/ ½ cup ANSWERS TO CASE STUDY A diet planned with the following number of servings from each of the MyPlate food groups would provide Olivia with 150 grams of carbohydrates and no added refined sugars: 5 servings of bread, cereals, and pastas = 5 X 15 = 75 grams of carbohydrates 3 servings of fruit and 100% fruit juice = 3 X 10 = 30 grams of carbohydrates 3 servings of vegetables = 3 X = 30 grams of carbohydrates 3 servings of milk = 3 X = 18 grams of carbohydrates TOTAL = 153 grams of carbohydrates Attention should be given to choices within each of the above food groups so that all of Olivia’s other nutrient needs are also being met. There are many snack alternatives (without refined sugar) that Olivia’s mother could serve, including cheese with crackers, peanut butter with apple slices, yogurt and fresh fruit, raw vegetables and cheese cubes, hummus and pita wedges, and tuna salad with a soft pretzel.

22 What nutrient-dense snack items would you suggest that Olivia's mother serve in place of those with refined sugars?

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