Presentation on theme: "Primary Process Skills Developmentally Appropriate for ages 5 & above SkillInstructional Implication Observe first step in gathering information require."— Presentation transcript:
Primary Process Skills Developmentally Appropriate for ages 5 & above SkillInstructional Implication Observe first step in gathering information require careful observation, point out overlooked phenomena Compare children identify similarities & differences can compare/contrast objects, ideas, concepts Classify begins w/ sorting & grouping—first by one property, then two or more teach subset—groups with unique characteristic Measure involves numbers—distances, time, volumes, temperature, etc. objects in sequence—seriation Communicate oral or visual descriptions so others can understand encourage use of logs, diagrams, graphs, recording results
SkillInstructional Implication Infer indirect, unseen—has not happened or cannot be observed unlike an observation—requires assumption of prior knowledge children make observations, categorize, try to make meaning Predict statement about what you expect to happen need prior knowledge for reasonable predictions prediction important in developing understanding of cause & effect introduced in primary as “ best guess ” Intermediate Process Skills Developmentally Appropriate for ages 9-11 & above
SkillInstructional Implication Hypothesize statement of relationship that might exist between two variables—If... then formal scientific experiments contain a hypothesis & control variable(s) Define & Control Variables in formal experiment, variables are defined & controlled Example: when investigating plant growth in dark, also grow plant in light Advanced Process Skills Developmentally Appropriate for ages 12 & above
Science Process Skills Basic—developmentally appropriate for age 5 and above Observing Using the senses to collect information. Comparing & Contrasting Discovering similarities & differences between objects or events. Classifying Sorting or ordering objects or ideas into groups or categories based on their properties. Measuring Determining length, area, volume, mass/weight, or time of objects or events by using instruments that measure these properties. Communicating Making Models Recording Data Using pictorial, written, or oral language to describe an event, action, or object. Making pictorial, written or physical representation to explain an idea, event, or object Writing down results of an observation of an object or event using pictures, words, or numbers. Intermediate—developmentally appropriate for ages 9-11 & above Predicting Guessing what outcome of events will be based on observations &, prior knowledge of similar events. Inferring Making statements about an observation that provide a reasonable explanation. Advanced—developmentally appropriate for age 12 and above Hypothesizing Stating a problem to be solved as a question. Planning Investigations Determining a reasonable procedure that could be followed to test an idea or hypothesis. Synthesized from Koch, J. (1999) Science Stories: Teachers & Children as Science Learners, p. 102. NY: Houghton Mifflin; & Jones, M.G. (1994) “Assessment Potpourri.” Science & Children, Oct 94, p. 17.