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Presentation on theme: "SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS"— Presentation transcript:

ORIGIN OF THE SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS Robert Gagne and AAAS identified what are known today as science process skills Who is Robert Gagne? and What is AAAS?

2 Robert Gagne was an experimental psychologist/cognitive scientist like Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner. He lived in He was famous for his work on instructional design, and two theories which are: 1. Learning Hierarchy; and 2. Learning prerequisites . He identified five categories of learning outcomes which are: verbal information, intellectual skills, Cognitive strategies, attitudes and motor skills. He also gave conditions for attaining these outcome. He authored a book known as The Conditions of Learning

3 Intellectual skills Gagne intellectual skills are arranged in hierarchical order. They are: Higher Order Rules Rules Defined Concepts Concrete Concepts Discriminations. This is what Gagne referred to as learning hierarchy, one is a prerequisite to learn the next above it. Also he said a person must possess certain capabilities to be able to do this. Gagne said further these capabilities which he called process skills are needed for one to learn and do science.

4 Gagne pioneered a curriculum known as Science A Process Approach.
GAGNE, SAPA and AAAS Gagne pioneered a curriculum known as Science A Process Approach. He was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. It was this association, influenced by Gagne and the curriculum, that identified the 16 science process skills. This was done through a nation al survey of what scientists do at any point in time either in the laboratory or on the field. They came out with 16 activities that scientists carry out anytime they are working. These activities are referred to science process skills. Question: Who can list some of these skills?

5 The Science Process Skills
. These skills are separated into two categories – basic process skills and integrated / technological process skills. The six basic science process skills are: 1.Observing – using the 5 senses to find out information about objects: an object’s characteristics, properties, similarities, and other identification features. 2. Classifying – the process of grouping and ordering objects. 3. Measuring – comparing unknown quantities with known quantities, such as: standard and non-standard units of measure. 4. Communicating – using multimedia, written, graphs, images, or other means to share findings. 5. Inferring – forming ideas to explain observations. 6. Predicting – developing an assumption of the expected outcome.

6 The next category are the five integrated process skills. The are:
7. Formulating a Hypothesis – making a prediction (educated guess) based on evidence of prior research and investigations. 8. Controlling Variables – naming and controlling for the independent, dependent, and control variables in an investigation. 9. Operational Definitions – develop specific terms to describe what is happening in the investigation based on observable characteristics. 10. Experimenting – carrying out an investigation. 11. Interpreting Data – analyzing the results of an investigation

7 The last category 12. Asking Questions – have students reflect on prior knowledge and experiences to develop their questions as they analyze the problem at hand. 13.Stating Problems– a hypothesis of based on the results of answers to questions and prior knowledge and experiences. Isolating and Controlling Variables – work with one independent and dependent variable at a time to avoid confusion and erroneous data. Be sure they identify variables that do not change throughout the investigation – control variables. 14. Record Keeping – accurately record answers to questions for comparison with data collected. 15. Drawing conclusion – an inference that findings are related to similar findings in a related investigation. 16. Formulating theoretical models – use diagrams, concept maps, graphs, pictures, physical models, and other means to explain an investigation’s findings.

8 1. Describe the four developmental stages of Jean Piaget.
ASSIGNMENT 1. Describe the four developmental stages of Jean Piaget. 2. Give a catalogue of what children are capable of doing at each of these stages. 3. What are the implications of Piaget work for science teaching and learning? Submission Date: Feb 9th, 2013


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