Science Process of gathering and organizing information about the physical world
Three Dimensions of Science Science Content Science Processes ScientificAttitudes Basic science concepts and knowledge Skills necessary to “do” science Respect for methods and values of science
Scientific Attitudes Curious Imaginative Desire to ask questions / solve problems Respect for scientific evidence Accept scientific knowledge and theories change over time as more information is gathered Tenacity
Science Process Skills Observation Communication Classification Measurement Inference Prediction
Observation Use senses to gather information Quantitative observations involve numbers Qualitative observations use words or diagrams (pictures) Detailed observations are critical throughout the scientific process
Communication Sharing observations with others for peer review Communication needs to be clear and effective so others understand the information Scientific communication uses common language to prevent misunderstandings Often includes diagrams, tables, graphs, and pictures
Classification Grouping objects or events based on observed similarities, differences, and interrelationships
Measurement Act of comparing a property to a standard Measurements include a numerical value (magnitude) and a unit of measurement.
Inference Explanations or interpretations that result from observation Inferences allow us to better understand the world around us. Inferences also allow us to form hypotheses
Prediction Stating the outcome of future events based on observations and inferences Making predictions allow you to test hypotheses
Scientific Investigation Diverse way in which scientists study the physical world. Includes: Focus Question / Purpose Hypothesis Variables Constants Control (sometimes)
Focus Question A question or problem the investigation is attempting to answer or solve. Provides a focus or purpose for the investigation
Hypothesis A testable prediction based on observations / inferences A hypothesis is written in an if… then… format and includes the variables of the experiment and how they will change
Variables Factors (properties) that change during an experiment Two types of Variables: Independent Variable Dependent Variable(s)
Independent Variable The factor the person conducting the experiment changes directly. Only one independent variable can be tested at a time. Is changed several times to ensure it is having an effect. Each time it is changed, multiple trials are used to ensure observations are precise.
Dependent Variable(s) The factor(s) that change as a result of the experiment. It “depends” on the independent variable. A scientific experiment can have more than one dependent variable.
Constants Factors (properties) that remain unchanged during the experiment. Constants ensure the experiment only tests one independent variable at a time
Control A portion of the experiment that does not contain the independent variable (or contains a “normal” level of the independent variable) Used to compare results of the experiment to what would happen under “normal” conditions. Some scientific investigations do not include a control.
Data and Graphs Tables can be used to organize and display observations and measurements recorded during an investigation. Graphs can be used to display trends in the data and relationship between variables.
Conclusions Statement that answers the focus question based on the data collected during the investigation Additional information gained from the investigation including improvements that could be made or a new question to be investigated
New Terms New scientific vocabulary and concepts introduced during the investigation