Presentation on theme: "Social Stratification An Introduction. DO NOW: In your notebook, write down one experience that you have had or have heard about for each of the following:"— Presentation transcript:
DO NOW: In your notebook, write down one experience that you have had or have heard about for each of the following: (1) A time you experienced prejudice or discrimination; (2) A time you discriminated against somebody else; (3) A time you witnessed discrimination and did nothing about it; (4) A time you witnessed discrimination and did something about it. You will have 5 minutes to complete this. Please be respectful and appropriate.
GROUP ACTIVITY In groups of 5, you will all take part in a “participant observation” by answering these questions and listening to others answer the questions. You must discuss (as a group) each category and your answers to each. Then, choose one answer for each question that is worthy of sharing with the class. (1) A time you experienced prejudice or discrimination; (2) A time you discriminated against somebody else; (3) A time you witnessed discrimination and did nothing about it; (4) A time you witnessed discrimination and did something about it. What is it that leads us to act or choose not to act? What is the cause/source of discrimination and prejudice? What sociological effects can this have on whole countries, smaller groups, and individual people?
IN YOUR NOTEBOOKS… Recall our activity exploring discrimination and answer the following questions: What is the cause/source of discrimination and prejudice? What sociological effects can this have on whole countries, smaller groups, and individual people?
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION - A SYSTEM BY WHICH A SOCIETY RANKS CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE IN A HIERARCHY BASED ON THEIR ACCESS TO SCARCE RESOURCES.
FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: It is a characteristic of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences. Results from social structure and affects everyone. It persists over generations. It is passed on via family ties, where the infant inherits the social location of their parents. It is universal but variable. It involves not just inequality but the belief systems that legitimize this inequality.
CULTURAL BELIEFS SERVE TO JUSTIFY SOCIAL STRATIFICATION. THAT IS PART OF THE REASON WHY IT PERSISTS.
TYPES OF STRATIFICATION SYSTEMS Caste System- social stratification based on ascribed status. [Example: India and South Africa] Class System- social stratification based on achieved (?) status.
STATUS: POSITION IN SOCIETY CASTE: Ascribed- born into or comes without effort e.g., kinship, race, gender CLASS: Achieved - must work to get
STATUS: POSITION IN SOCIETY HOW CAN WE SEE AMERICA AS HAVING BOTH ACHIEVED AND ASCRIBED STATUS FOR ITS POPULATION? EXAMPLES:
WHAT CAN THIS GRAPH TELL US ABOUT ACHIEVED AND ASCRIBED STATUS IN AMERICA?
17 SOCIAL MOBILITY Social mobility refers to movement up or down the stratification system, and this movement is caused by two forces. 1. Exchange mobility This is mobility due to the individual’s own behaviors. An example would be when someone works very hard on the job and their boss notices it and rewards them with a promotion. 2. Structural mobility This is mobility due to social forces beyond the individual’s immediate control. An example would be if a factory started up in a small town, then plenty of new jobs would open up and it would offer lots of structural opportunities for people. Similarly if the factory closed shop, then it would lead to mass layoffs, regardless of how well the workers perform on the job as individuals.
18 SOCIAL MOBILITY Americans are socialized to believe that most mobility in the U.S. is exchange mobility but this is not true. The vast bulk of mobility in this society is due to structural forces. This also explains why Americans have enjoyed more than a century of upward mobility. As long as the American economy has grown to offer more and better paying jobs, America has been a “land of opportunity.”
INTERPRETATIONS OF STRATIFICATION Functionalist Theory Certain roles in society must be performed if the system is to be maintained Without varying rewards (i.e. salaries), many jobs would not be filled, and society could not function smoothly Criticism: By believing in this, society will continue to put less effort on those who are “incapable,” never allowing for growth or shift in societal norms Unequal access to education Talent in lower classes! Why do some professions who do not contribute as much to society (i.e. professional athletes/movie stars) command so much of the nation’s wealth?
INTERPRETATIONS OF STRATIFICATION Conflict Theory Competition over scarce resources as cause of social inequality Once a group gains power, it is able to shape public policy and public opinion to its own advantage. Maintains position of power Criticism: Fails to recognize that unequal rewards are sometimes based on differences in skill, talent, and desire. Society must have a way to urge individuals into “effective” positions in society.
INTERPRETATIONS OF STRATIFICATION Karl Marx and Max Weber Social classes are determined by who owns the means of production; Divided into two groups: Bourgeoisie-Owners of the means of production Reap all profits Proletariat-Sell labor in exchange for wages Does all work Property, Prestige, Power
PROPERTY, PRESTIGE, POWER 1. Social class –Having wealth means having power – bourgeoisie vs. proletariat 2. Status – some jobs may be low paid, but they carry high prestige and thus convey power. i.e. a priest or the President of the U.S. 3. Power – Power comes from money and high social status. Power does not always have to be in the form of money. i.e. Mahatma Ghandi
PEOPLE ARE STRATIFIED ALL OVER THE WORLD BASED ON THE FOLLOWING: INCOME PRESTIGE WEALTH EDUCATION POWER GENDER RACE ETHNICITY AGE HEALTH CULTURE CAN WE ADD ANYTHING ELSE TO THIS LIST?