Presentation on theme: "Prof. Maria Loizidou National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prof. Maria Loizidou National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) “Water Resources Management:Needs and Prospects”Jordan, Amman, 22/04/2013
2 BRAWA Project“Development and implementation of an innovative, brackish water treatment pilot plant for the production of drinking water in communities of Jordan”
3 BRAWA: FundingThe project was funded from the General Secretariat of International Economic Relations and Development Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
4 BRAWA: Partners National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) School of Chemical EngineeringUnit of Environmental Science and Technology (UEST)Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST)Faculty of Agriculture
5 “The main objective of this project is BRAWA: Main aim“The main objective of this project isthe development of an innovative, energy autonomous system for the treatment of brackish water system in order to provide an isolated Jordan community with clean water”
6 Millenium Development Goals 2015 The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United Nations, form a blueprint agreed by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions.The world has met the target of halving the proportion of people without access to improved sources of water, five years ahead of schedule.Between 1990 and 2010, more than two billion people gained access to improved drinking water sources.Over 40 per cent of all people without improved drinking water live in sub-Saharan Africa.The greatest progress was achieved in Eastern and Southern Asia.Despite progress, 2.5 billion in developing countries still lack access to improved sanitation facilities.Source:The world has met the target of halving the proportion of people without access to improved sources of water, five years ahead of schedule, but still the problem remains
7 2013: International year for water cooperation In December 2010, United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) declared 2013 as the United Nations International Year of Water CooperationUN recognizes that cooperation is essential to strike a balance between the different needs and priorities and share this precious resource equitably. Note that today, 783 million people still remain without access to an improved water supply. Many more use water that is unsafe to drink.
10 Global Water Distribution & Water Classification
11 Water Supply & Desalination Although the absolute quantities of freshwater on earth have always remained approximately the same, the uneven distribution of water and human settlement continues to create growing problems freshwater availability and accessibilitySeawater and brackish water desalination has been proven to be a technologically sound and promising option for combating the coming water crisis
14 Technical characteristics of the main desalination technologies
15 Brackish water: 1 – 3 kWh/m3 Electricity consumption in RO plantsdepending on feedwater qualityThe per m3 consumption of electric energy, depends on the feedwater as follows:Seawater: kWh/m3Brackish water: 1 – 3 kWh/m3
17 Desalination plants in Jordan Currently, Jordan produces about 50 Million Cubic Meters by desalination from over 10 desalination plants (the majority of which comprise reverse osmosis plants, see table on the left):40 MCM are being used for domestic purposes and10 MCM for irrigation
18 Sources of brackish water which can be utilized from different groundwater basins
19 Decentralized concept Energy Autonomous Desalination Systems In Jordan, there is not only a water shortage problem but also the electricity is mainly produced by fossil fuels and in some case there is a lack of electricity grid connection.Renewable energy driven desalination has been evaluated from different researchers as the most suitable option resulting from multi-criteria analysis under economic, technical, availability, reliability and environmental sustainability criteriaAs part of ADIRA project activities (MEDA-WATER programme), a solar powered desalination system has been installed in the Hartha Charitable Society (HCS) in Hartha village in the northern part of Jordan (PV-RO, Capacity: 0.5 m3/day, 18$/m3)
22 Innovative, energy autonomous brackish water treatment plant (BRAWA system)
23 Implementation Region The implementation region is Salhiyyat Al-Naeem Village of the Rwaished Municipality, in the eastern Jordan (distance from Rwaihsed to Salhiyyat Al- Naeem: ~35 km)
24 BRAWA: Methodology (1/2) Analysis of the current situation regarding the management of water resources in JordanPresentation and analysis of the current situation regarding the management of brackish water in JordanStudy and design of a prototype, autonomous energy, integrated pilot system for treating brackish waterConstruction of a pilot system for the treatment of brackish waterOperation of the pilot system
25 BRAWA: Methodology(2/2) Evaluation of the pilot operation and optimization of the system’s performanceSuggestions for implementing on a large scale – Evaluation of the system’s environmental and economic performanceDissemination of project resultsManagement of the program – reporting to Hellenic Aid and Greek consulate
26 Components:Reverse Osmosis membrane unit (RO)Photovoltaic System (PV)Wind turbine systemVertical pulsatory motion of a conductor (patented system)Storage water tanksBatteriesAll basic and auxilliary equipment has been succesfully installed on site.
27 BRAWA system: Renewable Energy Capacity (KW) The hybrid system has the capability to produce electricity and save up to 25 kW, utilizing renewable energy sources, namely solar, wind and energy production under water pressure.Specifically, the distribution of energy produced by the system is as follows:From the wind energy, using the specially designed vertical axis rotor, up to 10kW (Wind Part)From solar energy through the use of photovoltaic (solar) cells, up to 2kW (Solar Part)From the vertical pulsatory motion of a conductor inside a magnetic field (natural magnet), inside a liquid layer of water under pressure, up to 13kW (Patented system )
28 Wind Part (1/2) Nominal Capacity: 10kW Design: Vertical axis, four curved shape bladesThe mechanical energy produced from the rotation of the blades, is converted (after speed change with a gear box) to electricity. This conversion is realized through the use of energy converters and the energy produced is stored to the batteries system which is installed in the underground support metallic base.
29 Wind Part (2/2)Different views of theWind power system
30 Solar Part (1/2) Nominal Capacity: 2kW Design: Single-crystalline SiliconMounting: Under the rotor, on the main body (8 photovoltaicpanels)The slope of the support bases and the connection of photovoltaic panels ensure maximum output per surface. The power produced from the solar system is stored to the batteries system which is installed in the underground support metallic base.
31 Solar Part (2/2)Different views of theSolar power system
32 Patented System (1/2) Nominal Capacity: 13kW The main part of renewable energy is generated (13kW) through the use of a conductor device installed in the main body.This device takes advantage of the vertical pulsatory motion of the water under pressure, inside a magnetic field (produced by a natural magnet).It is noted that this unique power generation system has introduced an additional innovation to the BRAWA system and holds an International patent (Patent No ). This provides an exceptional advantage over conventional renewable power systems.
33 Patented System (2/2)Energy production device from the vertical pulsatory motion of a conductor
34 Reverse Osmosis System (1/7) Brackish water treatment systemReverse osmosis Capacity:1.7 m3/hr (40 m3/day)Recovery rate65%Feed pressure6-12 barProduced water conductivity:< 400 μS/cm (drinkable water specifications)Feed water temperature10-60oCDosage of antiscalant6ppm (gr/m3)
37 Reverse Osmosis System (4/7) Pre-treatment stagePre-chlorination dosimeter (sodium hypochlorite solution for removal of soluble iron and manganese)Multi-layer sand pyrolusite filter (removal of suspended particles and iron ionsMulti-layer activated carbon filter (removal of free chlorine and residual iron)Figure: Multi-layer activated carbon filter
38 Reverse Osmosis System (5/7) Treatment stageStainless steel high-pressure pumpSix (6) Reverse Osmosis membranesPressure vessels containing the membranes:Number: 3 vessels (2 membranes per vessel)Maximum pressure: 21 barFigure: Pressure vessels containing the RO membranes
39 Reverse Osmosis System (6/7) Post-treatment: Permeate rehardening stageUltraviolet radiation (UV) device for the disinfection of remixing current (filtered feeding water). The UV unit is stainless steel with a capacity of 1.8m3/h.Dosimeter feeding system of sodium hypochlorite solution (chlorine) for the protection of stored distributed water from microorganisms. It includes 200lt PE (polyehtylene) tank with dosing pump
40 Fresh Water Production System (7/7) Water output taps