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Desalination in the Netherlands and Beyond Emily Tenenbaum January 27 th 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Desalination in the Netherlands and Beyond Emily Tenenbaum January 27 th 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Desalination in the Netherlands and Beyond Emily Tenenbaum January 27 th 2011

2 Outline  Intro to Voltea & Capacitive Deionization  Overview of Freshwater Scarcity in Europe  Freshwater Scarcity in the Netherlands Desalination for agriculture Desalination for municipal supply Desalination for industry

3 Voltea & CapDI  Founded 2006, Netherlands-based  Spin-off from Unilever  Main activity: Develop and Commercialize Capacitive Deionization technology (CapDI)  40 employees, growing rapidly  CapDI basics Low feedwater pressure Uses ion-exchange membranes Treats tap to brackish water Minimal pretreatment No or little chemical use Low energy use Competitive with RO, EDR, ion exchange Current commercial applications: cooling tower make-up water, residential point-of-entry

4 Water Availability in Europe World Resources Institute Water Stress Atlas, 2000 Desalination Capacity by Country

5 Water Availability in Europe the Netherlands BelgiumFrance Significant freshwater scarcity in Northern Europe

6 Brackish Water in Netherlands Depth of Brackish Water Interface meters below Normal Amsterdam Waterlevel (NAP) to reach [Cl - ] = 1000 mg/L Netherlands area = New Jersey + New Hampshire Growing Problems: Coastal saltwater intrusion caused by depletion of fresh groundwater Inland brackish groundwater

7 Desalination Needs in the Netherlands 1.Agricultural – saltwater intrusion in greenhouse areas 2.Municipal – increasingly brackish surface and groundwater 3.Industrial – Strong financial incentive to reduce industrial water use. Many solutions require desalination Greenhouses near Rotterdam Tulip field near Voltea HQ

8 Desalination for Agriculture in Westland Depth of Brackish Water Interface meters below Normal Amsterdam Waterlevel (NAP) to reach [Cl - ] = 1000 mg/L Westland Region, a.k.a. “Glass City”

9 Desalination for Agriculture in Westland Westland Greenhouse Region  42% Dutch greenhouse sector  ~1% National GDP  Brackish surface and groundwater  Low-efficiency RO systems treat groundwater for greenhouses  Deep injection of brine  Upcoming government ban on brine injection

10 Desalination for Agriculture in Westland Harnaschpolder WWTP Westland Greenhouse Region Problem: brackish water challenge for greenhouses Solution: reuse WWTP effluent for greenhouse irrigation ParameterWWTP Effluent Greenhouse max level [Cl - ]135 mg/L36 mg/L [Na + ]100 mg/L23 mg/L ~75% salt reduction needed

11 Pilot Testing for Wastewater Resuse Long-term pilot testing underway of 3 desalination options:  UF/RO (Evides)  Innovative RO train (Veolia)  CapDI (Voltea) Voltea engineer testing benchtop CapDI units at WWTP Harnaschpolder WWTP Pilot hall at Harnaschpolder WWTP

12 Desal for Municipal Water  Saline water from marine deposit layers and North Sea is seeping into drinking water sources  National drinking water chloride limit is 150 mg/L  Drinking water providers forsee difficulty in meeting the chloride limit  Some drinking water wells already shut down  Drinking water providers exploring brackish water desal options  All projects still in pilot phase Source: Oasen Drinkwater

13 Desal for Municipal Water Voltea Pilot in Rotterdam April - Nov 2011 Test CapDI on groundwater Feed conductivity = 1.5 mS/cm 6 L/min (0.36 m 3 /hr) Oasen drinking water station Results promising! 80% salt removal 70% water recovery 0.4 kWh/m 3 pure Stable operation Oasen interested in large-scale CapDI system as RO alternative Voltea Capacitive Deionization System

14 Desal for Municipal Water PURO Pilot Kickoff 2011 Place RO system 100 m below ground Reduced pumping energy Anerobic process, no iron removal pretreatment needed Major maintenance challenges with underground operation Schematic of PURO pilot in Ridderkerk

15 Desalination for Industrial Water  Dutch tapwater is expensive (€1.75 /m 3 )  Cost incentive for factories to find tapwater alternatives, or reduce tapwater use

16 Desalination for Industrial Water Voltea CapDI in Cooling Towers  Use CapDI to desalinate feedwater to cooling towers  Rabobank HQ in Utrecht  Increase cycles of recirculation in cooling tower from 3 to 14  17% reduction tapwater use  68% reduction wastewater discharge  75% reduction chemical usage (antiscalents, corrosion inhibitors) Capacitive Deionization System at Rabobank HQ. ~2 m 3 /hr capacity Rabobank HQ in Utrecht

17 Take Home Message  Brackish ground and surface water is a growing problem in the Netherlands  Problem affects agriculture, drinking water supply, and industry  Desal will play a increasing role in the Dutch water industry t Typical view from a window in the Netherlands

18 Desalination for Industrial Water Dow Chemical Plant  Evides chosen by Dow to design, build, finance, operate (DBFO) industrial water plant  Location with limited freshwater  Plant produces process water, boiler feed, cooling tower feed, ~3800 m 3 /hr  Demi water initially from seawater RO – major fouling problems (2000-2007 )  2008 switched to MF/RO fed with municipal wastewater  Plan upgrade to membrane bioreactor/RO fed with municipal wastewater Section of water plant at Dow Chemical factory in Terneuzen

19 NaCl Drinking water limitations  Most drinking water is groundwater  Dutch National limits on chloride are <150 ppm, Na <120 ppm  US secondary DW standard is 250 ppm  EU chloride <250 ppm, Na <200 ppm, EC <2500 microS/cm

20 WRI water risk index The 3 dimensions (23 total indicators) of water-related economic risk were determined by WRI in collaboration with industry experts, financial analysts, and water specialists, and include: Access and growth constraints: provides a measure of water risks driven by the physical availability and accessibility of water; Cost risks: capture the cost risks faced by water users due to poor water quality, regulatory uncertainty, or high prices of water and its treatment; and Disruption potential: provides a measure of the tensions and conflicts around water driven by social and regulatory concerns.

21 CapDI – How it Works

22 Desal for Municipal Water Vitens Pilot in Friesland Vitens-largest drinking water supplier in Netherlands Anerobic brackish water RO pilot in Friesland (feed = 2.6 mS/cm) Deep well injection of anerobic brine No antiscalents due to reinjection restrictions 70% recovery Started in 2009 50 m 3 /hr RO equipment in Vitens pilot trailer in Noardburgum, Friesland

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