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Political Parties and politics

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1 Political Parties and politics
Chapter 9 Political Parties and politics

2 Political Parties political party - people who share similar ideas about the government and work together to get party members elected to political offices How do you join a political party? simply declare yourself a member

3 History of Political Parties
not mentioned in the Constitution Many of the founding fathers did not want political parties to exist in America First parties started in country with a dispute between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton Jefferson created the Democratic-Republicans who wanted less power for the national government and more for the states Hamilton started the Federalists who wanted a stronger national government

4 History of Political Parties
By 1828 the Federalists had disappeared and the Democratic-Republicans split and became a new party called the Democrats headed by Andrew Jackson who was supported by small farmers and laborers A new party replaced the Federalists called the Whigs who was supported large plantation owners and businessmen

5 History of Political Parties
By 1854 the issue of slavery spilt the country Anti-slavery Democrats and Whigs merged to form the Republican party The Democrats and the Republicans have been the major parties ever since

6 Two-Party System The United States is said to have a two party system, as only 2 major parties have controlled the government Those parties today are Democrats and Republicans One party is always guaranteed on winning a majority One disadvantage: minority viewpoints are often not heard

7 Differences in the Major Parties
Democrats: Liberal Blue-collar worker Employee Favor active government Support welfare programs Support affirmative action programs Pro-choice Minorities Republicans: Conservative White-collar worker Employer Favor less government Against welfare programs Against affirmative action programs Pro-life White protestants

8 Third Parties There are other parties besides the Democrats and the Republicans in the USA All smaller parties are called Third Parties Third parties very rarely ever win an election but can influence it in two ways: bring attention to issues usually adopted by major parties “spoiler” role

9 Important 3rd Parties of the Past
Some third parties have had an impact in this country Populists-popular in the 1890s, called for direct election of Senators and an 8 hour workday Progressives-effected the presidential election by taking votes from the republicans and allowing Woodrow Wilson to win the election for the democrats

10 Third Parties Third Parties arise for 1 of 3 reasons:
Single–issue parties: try to get a single idea passed. Once they do, they fade away. EX: Prohibition Party Ideological parties: focus on changing the country in some way. EX: Socialist Party wants government ownership of industry Independent candidates: arise around a strong individual. EX: The Independent Party created for H. Ross Perot

11 Multi-Party System Most countries have a multi-party system
EX: Canada (3), Germany (5), Israel (20) all viewpoints can be heard If no party wins a majority, the party with a plurality (more than anyone else but less than half) must form a coalition (partnership) with another party to get a majority Problem is these coalitions often breakdown leading to a call for new elections

12 One-Party Systems The party and the government are the same thing
Elections are held to pick who is the best to do the parties work, not on any ideas of that party There is no opposition as it is illegal to work against the party Not a democracy EX: China or Iran

13 National Party Organizations in the United States
Run by a chairperson who manages the office and directs the staff Leads the fundraising effort for the party Committees recruit candidates, teach campaign strategies, organize funds and create advertising Organizes the parties national convention which is held every 4 years Sets the parties platform-overall strategy and the parties planks-individual ideas in the party platform

14 50 State Organizations Focus on electing party members to state offices such as governor, attorney general, and state legislators Helps the national committee with their campaigns in that particular state

15 Local County Organizations
Each state is divided into smaller sections called precincts Each precinct is led by a precinct captain They try to register as many people in the party as they can Their job is to get to know the community and the issues that are important there Most party work is done at this level

16 Political Machines Local parties that are very good at their jobs are called political machines Guarantee votes and elections in their area Became powerful at time when there were no government programs to help immigrants Helped immigrants get jobs, apartments, and medical care in exchange for their vote Became corrupt or unresponsive to the people Most famous was Tammany Hall in New York City

17 Nominating Candidates
Usually done through primary elections - elections in which people chose among several party members to run for the party in the general election A closed primary -only declared party members can vote In an open primary -anyone from either party can vote Most states favor closed primaries so as to ensure only the best candidates are running If no one wins a majority in a primary, the top two vote getters run against each other in a run-off election

18 Campaigning raise money for candidates
write speeches and design advertising campaigns promote the candidate (hang signs or posters, give out flyers) register people and get them to the polls on election day

19 Informing Citizens inform the public of key issues
Sets up websites, makes pamphlets, buys TV, radio, and newspaper ads

20 Managing the Government
Work does not end after the election Helps assign government jobs Serves as a basis for future job openings

21 Linking Levels of Governments
MAYOR GOVERNOR PRESIDENT Develops good relationships and working environments Help each other solve problems

22 Acting as a Watchdog The Party that loses the election can watch the other party This forces the party in control to make sure it is doing its job and following up on its campaign promises Competition forces the parties to listen to us

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