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Political Parties Chapter 10

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1 Political Parties Chapter 10

2 Being an American Lesson 1
Essential Questions: How do citizens, both individually and collectively, influence government policy? It Matters Because: Political parties are one of the major ways citizens participate in the political process and influence the direction of government.

3 Growth of American Parties
Guiding Question: Why did political parties develop? Political party- is a group of people with broad, shared interests Some Americans join a political party to share ideas with others who feel as they do Voters who want to influence or control decision making in government They have influence by electing the party’s candidate to public office Two-party-system- a system of government in which two political parties compete for power

4 The First Parties The United States Constitution does not mention political parties By the 1790’s two groups had formed to compete for political parties People had different ideas about what government should be How much power should the federal government have?

5 Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State
Wanted to protect people’s rights by limiting the power of the national government More power for the states Closer to the people Jefferson and his supporters started the Democratic-Republican party This party grew stronger

6 Alexander Hamilton Secretary of Treasury
If the federal government was too weak individuals’ rights would be in danger Favored a strong national government Strong central government was needed to have a healthy economy Hamilton and his supporters started the Federalists party Soon faded away

7 Today’s Major Parties By 1824, the Democratic-Republican party was very dominant 4 candidates ran for president in the same party John Quincy Adams defeated Andrew Jackson Tensions between the two candidates and their supporters remained Sectional differences among North, South and West increased the tension By 1828, the Democratic-Republican party had split

8 Andrew Jackson Supporters- called themselves the Democratic Party
Stressed ties to common people Same as the Democratic party of today Opponents- called themselves the National Republicans Faded away quickly The Whig party took their place (until 1850s) Proposed internal improvements such as roads and canals Avoided the issue of slavery

9 Evolution of American Political Parties
PARTY DATES OF EXISTENCE DESCRIPTION Federalists 1790s-1820 Favored a strong central government Democratic-Republican 1790s-1828 Formed to oppose Federalists; favored state over national government National Republican Split from Democratic-Republicans to oppose Andrew Jackson and work for strong central government Democratic 1825-Present Formed from Democratic-Republicans; supported Andrew Jackson; said it supported common people Whig Formed from National Republicans and others; favored internal improvements Republican 1854-Present Formed from Whigs and other groups; opposed spread of slavery to new territories and favored internal improvements Evolution of American Political Parties

10 Republican Party 1854 people who opposed slavery joined together to form the Republican party Abolish slavery in the South Others didn’t want slavery in the new territories As the slavery issue became more important, the Whig party dissolved The republicans dominated national politics for about 75 years after the Civil War Democrats served as president only 16 of the 75 years The Great Depression changed the balance to democrats’ favor , 28 of the ne3xt 36 years Since 1968 Republicans have won 7 times and Democrats on 4 times

11 Third Parties Guiding Question- What is the importance of third parties in American politics? Third Party- a political party that challenges the two major parties There have been many third parties throughout U.S. history No widespread support from voters They promoted ideas that were unpopular at first Popular Party from the 1890s called for Senators to be elected by voters. Progressive Party of the early 1900s, worked to give voters a more direct role in government

12 Types of Third Parties Single-issue political parties
They promote a particular cause Prohibition Party (1872)-main purpose was to ban the sale of alcohol They usually fade away, when the issue looses importance Parties formed because of ideology, and beliefs about government Communist Party USA They believe government should own all resources and business

13 Types of Third Parties (continued)
Other third parties unite around and independent leader with strong personalities Ross Perot- ran in 1992 as an independent Founded the Reform party, ran again in 1996 Reform party is very weak now Third parties have to collect signatures from many voters to appear on the ballot They have a hard time raising money and compete against the two big parties

14 Other Party Systems Political parties exist in most countries
The role they play differs in every country Many have multi-party systems Canada – 3 parties France – more than 8 Israel –more than 20 Hard for one party to gain control of the government Parties join forces and work together Some nations have only a one party system China- only has the Communist Party No rival candidates are allowed to run Election is mainly for show Not a democratic government

15 Party Differences Guiding Question –How do American’s major modern political parties differ? They differ in how much the government should be involved in the economy and in citizens’ lives Democrats The federal government should be more involved in regulating the economy Provide housing, income, education, jobs for the poor They are stronger in the Northeast and West coast Republicans Favor less government regulation of the economy as the best way to promote prosperity Stronger in the South

16 Things in Common Both parties try to adopt a moderate (down the middle) views Appeal to as many voters as possible Both believe economic growth is the best way to deal with unemployment Both are national parties They have candidates throughout the country Platform- a series of statements expressing a party’s: Principles, beliefs, and positions on elections issues

17 Political Parties Today Lesson 2
Essential Question: How do citizens, both individually and collectively influence government policy? It matters Because: Understanding how political parties work helps citizens as they follow campaigns and select candidates they wish to support.

18 Organization of Political Parties
Guiding Question: How are political parties organized? National Organization and Convention Each party has a National Committee Representatives from the 50 state party organization who run a political party Led by a national chairperson Raise money for presidential election Organize the party’s national convention

19 Conventions At the convention the delegates choose the party’s candidates for: President and Vice President Delegates are chosen through: Presidential primary election Caucus-special meeting Conventions use to be suspenseful events Now it’s just a formality Conventions are good for building party unity Launches the election campaign Major parties also have campaign committees for candidates for Congress Raise money Give advice and support to candidates

20 State and Local Organizations
The 50 state committees work to elect party candidates to state offices Governor, state legislator, and others National offices- Senate, House of Representatives Local level- thousands of city, town, and county committees County chairperson has a lot of power

21 Precincts Each city or county is divided into election districts called precincts. Precinct- a geographic area that contains a specific number of voters Could be an entire town or a group of neighborhoods in a large city Each precinct appoints a captain Register voters Organize volunteers Distribute leaflets

22 Organization of Political Parties
National Chairperson National Committee National Convelntion State Chairperson Congressional Campaign Committee Senatorial Campaign Committee State Committee Local Chairperson City, Town, or County Committe Precint Captain Precinct Workers

23 Political Machines Political machines- a strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes Strong political organizations Their candidates tend to win election They tend to be in power too long Tendency to become corrupt

24 Becoming Involved in a Political Party
You don’t have to join a political party to vote Parties offer citizens a great way to participate in politics Political parties try to attract as many members as possible Members can do volunteer work Make phone calls, help register voters, help with fund raising

25 Selecting Party Candidates
Guiding Question: how do political parties nominate candidates? Citizens can run for almost any public office The major job of political parties is to choose or nominate candidates for office Direct Primary- an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each political party in a general election

26 Types of Primaries Elections
Two forms of direct primary: closed and open Closed Primary- an election in which only the declared members of a political party are allowed to vote for that party’s nominees Open Primary- an election in which voters need not declare their party preference

27 Winning a Primary The winner is the one with a plurality of votes
Plurality- most votes, even if less than 50% Some states require a majority of votes Candidate must get more than 50% If there is no majority, there is a runoff vote (2nd primary) Runoff between the two candidates with the most votes

28 Officeholder Most offices have only one officeholder
Mayor, district representative Sometimes more than one type of position is vacant Several city council members The party can nominate more than one candidate Third party nominees have to file a petition Then they have to collect enough signatures

29 Other Political Party Functions
Guiding Question- What other roles do political parties play? The main role of political parties is to elect candidates to office. Support Candidates Helps win elections, volunteers, raise money, register voter Communicate with citizens Speeches, printed materials adds, listen to citizens Run the government Congress and state legislatures are organized based on party membership Support party positions on bills At every level, appoint people to fill certain position

30 Other Political Party Functions
The main role of political parties is to elect candidates to office. Link Levels of government Political parties help officials at different levels of government work together If they are from the same party, they are likely to work together Acting as a watchdog If one party loses power in the election, you keep check on the other party Make sure they don’t misuse their power The party out of power is referred to as the opposition party

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