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Introduction to the Human Body

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1 Introduction to the Human Body
For landmarks: models on the tables divided in 6 stations (upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, trunk and abdomen, head and neck. Let the students name them using colored stickers. For planes: use cucumbers (6 – 1 per station). Talk about planes and RX, CT scan. Body planes vs. tissue cuts. Abdominal regions: using colored stickers, let the students divide it in 4 quadrants and 9 regions and name them. Teach body cavities.

2 Anatomical position and Surface anatomy
Standing upright with palms facing forward Surface Anatomy Axial Head, neck and trunk Appendicular Limbs and their attachment to the axis

3 Regional Terms: Anterior View
Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Axillary (armpit) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Abdominal (abdomen) Pelvic (pelvis) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Pollex (thumb) Digital (fingers) Pubic (genital region) Patellar (anterior knee) Crural (leg) Tarsal (ankle) Pedal (foot) Digital (toes) Inguinal (groin) Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Fibular, or peroneal (side of leg) Hallux (great toe) Mammary (breast) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Sternal (breastbone) Thoracic (chest) Mental (chin) Umbilical (navel) (a) Anterior Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a

4 Regional Terms: Posterior View
Brachial (arm) Otic (ear) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Gluteal (buttock) Perineal (region between the anus and external genitalia) Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Sural (calf) Calcaneal (heel) Plantar (sole) Manus (hand) Upper extremity Cephalic (head) Lower (b) Posterior Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b

5 Body Orientation and Direction
Superior/inferior Anterior/posterior Medial/lateral Cranial/caudal Dorsal/ventral Proximal/distal Superficial (external)/deep (internal)



8 Body Planes and Sections
Transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right Midsagittal divides the body exactly down the middle

9 Body Cavities Body cavities are internal chambers holding vital organs
Two body cavities Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity Ventral body cavity includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity


11 Ventral body cavities The ventral body cavities are lined by a double-layered membrane called serosa or serous membrane. Visceral layer covers the organs Parietal layer lines the body wall A cavity is found between the two layers

12 Serous Membrane Relationship
Figure 1.10a

13 Thoracic Cavities The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs.
It is subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities and the mediastinum Each pleural cavity contains one lung Visceral and parietal pleura lines the cavity The mediastinum contain the pericardial cavity for the heart Visceral and parietal pericardium lines the cavity

14 Abdominopelvic Cavity
The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneum Visceral Parietal Peritoneal cavity between the two layers

15 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

16 Abdominal Regions

17 Other Body Cavities Oral cavity Nasal cavity Orbital cavity
Middle ear cavity Synovial cavities

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