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Anatomical Position & Directional Terms

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomical Position & Directional Terms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomical Position & Directional Terms

2 Anatomic Position Body erect Arms to side Palms forward
Head & neck forward

3 Directional Terms #1 Anterior/Ventral Posterior/Dorsal Medial/Lateral
Internal/External Proximal/Distal Superior/Inferior Cranial/Caudal Directional Terms Anterior/Ventral: in front Posterior/Dorsal: in back Medial: toward the midline Lateral: toward the side Internal: within body External: outside the body Proximal: closest to the point of origin Distal: farther from the point of origin Superior: upper or above Inferior: lower Cranial: towards the head Caudal: towards the tailbone

4 Directional Terms Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure

5 Directional Terms Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface Cranial and caudal – toward the head and toward the tail

6 Directional Terms Anterior view

7 Directional Terms Posterior View

8 Directional Terms Side view or Lateral view

9 Directional Terms #2 Flexion/Extension Afferent/Efferent
Adduction/Abduction Eversion/Inversion Pronation/Supination Deep/Superficial Plantar/Palmar Flexion: decreasing the angle between two bones Extension: increasing the angle between two bones Afferent: carrying toward a center Efferent: carrying away or away from a center Adduction: moving toward the midline Abduction: moving away from the midline Eversion: turning a body part outward Inversion: turning a body part inward Pronation: turning a body part downward Supination: turning a body part upward ( as in shrug shoulders, palms up, “what’s up?”) Deep: away from the body surface, more internal Superficial: toward or at the body surface Plantar: toward the sole of the foot Palmar: toward the palm of the hand

10 Directional Terms

11 Body Planes Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts Oblique section – cuts made diagonally

12 Body Planes Figure 1.8

13 Body Cavities Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: - Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities

14 Body Cavities Figure 1.9a

15 Body Cavities Figure 1.9b

16 Body Cavities Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity Pleural cavities – each houses a lung Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart

17 Body Cavities The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm It is composed of two subdivisions Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

18 Body Regions Head Neck Thorax Abdominal Posterior Trunk Extremities

19 Other Body Cavities Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose Orbital – house the eyes Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations Synovial – joint cavities

20 Abdominopelvic Regions
Umbilical Epigastric Hypogastric Right and left iliac or inguinal Right and left lumbar Right and left hypochondriac Figure 1.11a

21 Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions
Figure 1.11b

22 Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Right upper (RUQ) Left upper (LUQ) Right lower (RLQ) Left lower (LLQ) Figure 1.12

23 Head Regions #1 Parietal Frontal Occipital Temporal Auricular Buccal
Orbital Head Parietal: top of head towards the back and sides Frontal: forehead Occipital: base of skull Temporal: sides of head Auricular: ear Buccal: cheek Orbital: eye socket Mastoid: behind the ear Nasal: bridge of nose Mental: chin Submental: beneath the chin Maxillary: upper jaw Mandibular: lower jaw Zygomatic: cheek bone

24 Head Regions #2 Mastoid Nasal Mental Submental Maxillary Mandibular

25 Larynx Trachea Cervical Neck Regions Neck Larynx: front of neck
Trachea: front of neck Cervical: back of neck

26 Thorax Axillary Clavicular Sternal Mammary Costal Scapular Pectoral
Deltoid Thorax Axillary: armpit Clavicular: collar bone Sternal: mid-chest Mammary: breast Costal: rib Scapular: shoulder blade Pectoral: chest Deltoid: shoulder area

27 Posterior Trunk Regions
Nuchal Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx Gluteal Posterior Trunk Nuchal: back of neck Cervical: neck Thoracic: back of trunk Lumbar: at small of back, lower back, waist area, lateral mid-abdomen, right and left Sacral: pelvis, tailbone area Coccyx: tailbone Gluteal: buttocks

28 Extremities #1 Brachial Antecubital Olecranon Carpal Phalanges Manual
Pollex Extremities Brachial: upper arm Antecubital: front of elbow Olecranon: back of elbow Carpal: wrist Phalanges: fingers, toes Manual: hand Pollex: thumb Femoral: thigh Patellar: front of knee Popliteal: behind the knee Tarsal: ankle Pedal: foot Calcaneal: heel of foot

29 Extremities #2 Femoral Patellar Popliteal Tarsal Pedal Calcaneal

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