Presentation on theme: "The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Chapter 3: MigrationThe Cultural Landscape:An Introduction to Human Geography
2 Chapter 3: Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Reasons for migratingDistance of migrationCharacteristics of Migrants
3 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? A type of mobilityMigration is a permanent move to a new locationMigration = relocation diffusionEmigrationTo leave a place (think “Exit”)ImmigrationTo come to a new place (Think “In”)Net MigrationThe difference between the number of emigrants and immigrantsIf the number coming in is greater, it is “positive” or Net in-migrationIf the number going out is greater, it is “negative” or Net out-migration
4 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Reasons for migrationMost people migrate for economic reasonsPush and pull factorsEconomic: people move away from places with poor economic opportunities and toward places with better onesCultural factorsForced migration (e.g., slavery, refugees)Political factorsEnvironmental factorsPulled towards physically attractive regionsPushed from Hazardous regions, or adverse physical conditionsThese come with intervening obstaclesHistorically these are environmentalWith availability of transportation these obstacles are minimized
5 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Lee’s Model of MigrationEvery Place has both push and pull factorsThese factors are subjective and dependent on the needs and interests of individualsTheoretical version of the model- Push factors + Pull factors
6 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Lee’s Model of MigrationWhat it might actually look likeOriginPushLow WagesPolitical and civil strifeLimited opportunitiesPullFamilyCultureIntervening ObstaclesLack of moneyDistanceFearPhysical barriersDestinationPullHigher WagesMore job opportunitiesEducationPushLanguage BarrierNo DocumentsIntervening OpportunitiesJobsCommon LanguageA person must decide if the pull factors outweigh the push factors
7 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? E.G. Ravenstein: During the late 19th Century wrote Eleven migration laws to be applied to migration studiesLaws can be organized into 3 questionsWhy do migrants move?What is the distance migrants typically move?What are the characteristics of migrants?
8 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Distance of migrationInternal migration: Permanent movement within the same countryTwo types:Interregional migration = movement from one region to anotherIntraregional migration = movement within a regionHistorically intraregional migration has been from rural to urban areas in search of jobs (After Civil War the exodus from the southern states to the north)In recent years, migration from urban areas to attractive rural and suburban areasMost migrants move only a short distance (step migration)Step Migration: When a person has a long distance goal in mind and achieves it in small steps over timeEach migration stream produces a compensating counter-streamThe out-migration of Jews form Nazi Germany has a small counter-stream back into Germany because of their capture and forced return by Nazi officialsYoung Chinese men migrate to cities from rural villages only to return home after giving city life a try
9 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Distance of migrationInternational migrationTwo types:VoluntaryEconomic push/pull factors usually induce voluntary international migrationForcedCultural push/pull factors usually induce forced international migrationMigration transitionInternational migration is most common in countries that are in stage 2 of the demographic transition
10 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Refugees: Statistics• There are approximately 10.6 million refugees in the world today.• There are approximately 25.8 million internally displaced people world wide (600,000 were displaced after Hurricane Katrina, 2005).• 80% of the internally displaced people are women and children.• 44% of refugees and internally displaced people are under the age of 18.• 6% of refugees and internally displaced people are 60 years of ageor older.• Of all western countries, the United States accepted the highest number of refugees in 2004,approximately 244,200.• In million people, 8,000 people per day, left their homes toseek safety in another country.
11 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? What is a Refugee?People who have been forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecutionIndividuals who cross national boundaries to seek safety or asylum from persecution, usually cultural.Political conditions can also operated as pull factors, especially the lure of freedom.Considered a form of forced migration
12 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Where do we find refugees?Most refugees live in Asia and AfricaIran (1,355,000)Pakistan (1,219,000)The Gaza Strip (923,000)The West Bank (665,000)Syria (497,000)Tanzania (480,000)Thailand (405,000)
13 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? 20th Century InstabilityForced international migration increased because of political instability resulting from cultural diversityWith democracy on the rise in Eastern Europe during the 1990s, Western Europe’s political pull has disappeared as a migration factor.Western Europe pulls an increasing number of migrants from Eastern Europe for economic reasons.Post 9/11 many MDCs have tightened their borders to refugees due to safety concerns.In many African countries, there are refugees fleeing from and to the same country for different reasons. Ex. Sudan
16 Migration Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate? Characteristics of migrantsGenderTraditionally, males outnumbered femalesSearching for work because they are more likely to be the primary supporterIn the United States today, 55 % of immigrants = femaleFamily statusIn the United States today, about 40 % of immigrants = young adults, aged 25–39Families are less like to migrate than individualsImmigrants are less likely to be elderly people: 5% over age 65Rural residents are more likely to migrate than urban residentsTrue in Ravenstein’s time because of the Industrial RevolutionStill true in many developing countriesCounter-urbanization is a trend in the US where city dwellers are leaving crowded urban areas for suburbs and rural areas.
18 Chapter 3: Migration Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed? Global migration patternsU.S. Immigration patternsImpacts of Immigration on the U.S.
19 Migration: Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed Global migration patternsNet out-migration: Asia, Africa, and Latin AmericaNet in-migration: North America, Europe, and OceaniaThe United States has the largest foreign-born population of any other countryThe Global pattern reflects the importance of migration from LDCs to MDCs. Migrants from countries with relatively low incomes and high natural increase rates head for countries where job possibilities are brighter
21 Migration: Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed U.S. migration patternsThree main eras of migrationColonial migration from England and AfricaEuropeans came as migrants and colonists, Africans came in a “forced Migration” as slaves90% of Europeans came from Great BritainIn 1808 the importation of slaves was made illegal, but another 250, 000 Africans were brought to the U.S. illegally over the next half centuryNineteenth-century immigration from EuropeGermany sent the largest number of immigrants: 7.2 million, Italy: 5.4 million, UK: 5.3 million, Ireland: 4.8 million, Russia: 4.1 million¼ of Americans trace their ancestry to German immigrants, 1/8 each to Irish and British immigrantsRecent immigration from LDCsAsia: Three leading sources are China, India, the PhilippinesLatin America
23 Migration to the United States from Latin America Figure 3-9
24 Migration: Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed Impact of immigration on the United StatesLegacy of European migrationEurope’s demographic transitionStage 2 growth pushed Europeans out65 million Europeans emigrateDiffusion of European cultureIndo-European Languages are now spoken by half the world’s peopleChristianity, Europe’s most prevalent religion has the world’s largest number of adherentsEuropean art, music, literature, philosophy and ethics have diffused throughout the worldEuropean Political structures and economic systems have diffused around the globeEuropeans migrating to areas where they imposed political domination on indigenous populations sowed the seeds of discontent
25 Migration: Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed Impact of immigration on the United StatesUnauthorized immigration2008 = estimated 11.9 million unauthorized/ undocumented immigrantsAbout 5.4 percent of the U.S. civilian labor forceAround 59 percent are undocumented immigrants from MexicoChain Migration – Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
26 Migration: Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed: US States and Destinations California = 1/5 of all immigrants and 1/4 of undocumented immigrants; New York = 1/6 of all immigrants
27 Chapter 3: Migration Key Issue 3: Why Do Migrants face Obstacles? Immigration policies of host countriesCultural challenges faced while living in other countries
28 Migration: Key Issue 3: Why do migrants face obstacles Immigration policies of host countriesU.S. quota laws: Public Policy enacted to control the migrant streams from different countries. These acts were modified over time, and did not affect the status of refugees seeking asylum.The Quota Act (1921)The law established quotas, maximum limits on the number of people who could immigrate from each country in a one year periodThe National Origins Act (1924)Limited the number of Asians migrating to the USTemporary migration for workGuest workers in EuropeTime-contract workers in Asia
29 Migration: Key Issue 3: Why do migrants face obstacles Distinguishing economic migrants from refugeesEmigrants from CubaThe U.S. regarded people fleeing from Communist Cuba after 1959 when Fidel Castro came to power as political refugees.Cuban immigrants were admitted to the U.S. with the majority of them settling in FloridaEmigrants from HaitiIn 1980 people where seeking political asylum from the dictatorship of Francois Duvalier (Papa Doc) and his son, John-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc).The U.S. wouldn’t let them in because the trade status was different with Haiti than CubaEmigrants from VietnamVietnamese War ended in 1975; the U.S. withdrew troops from South Vietnam.Many South Vietnamese fled to the U.S., seeking political asylum from the incoming Communist regime that overtook the country from the north.Another wave of Southeast Asians came during more regional political upheaval in These people escaped to freedom however they could, and were known as “Boat People”
30 Migration: Key Issue 3: Why do migrants face obstacles Cultural problems faced while living in host countriesU.S. attitudes towards immigrantsCitizens of the U.S. have traditionally been suspicious of newcomersThrough the 19th Century, people from Western Europe were more welcome and assimilated more quickly into the landscapeDuring the early 20th Century, immigrants arriving from Eastern Europe were treated with suspicion and were often accused of “stealing work” from CitizensEastern Europeans also were treated with contempt because of some of their political ideologies and religious practices.Current discrimination includes California refusing basic services to illegal immigrants, although that has bee hard to uphold due to the questionable Constitutionality of the rulingAttitudes toward guest workersBoth European host countries and visiting guest workers consider the employment arrangement temporary.Most guest workers are young men and, regularly send most of the money they earn, home to their families.Accommodations for guest workers are usually poorCitizens of host countries regularly vote down referendums that would provide improvements for the living conditions of guest workers
31 Chapter 3: MigrationKey Issue 4: Why Do People Migrate Within a Country?Migration between regions of a countryMigration within one region
32 Migration: Key Issue 4: Why Do People Migrate within a Country? Migration between regions of a countryU.S. settlement patternsColonial settlementAlong the Eastern Seaboard. Population Center was in the Chesapeake bay in MarylandAccess to shipping routes and easier trade kept people along the coastEarly settlement in the interior (early 1800s)The development of the canal system allowed for easier travel towards the interior of N. AmericaCenter of population was in Weston, VA, 20 miles west from where it had beenCaliforniaDiscovery of Gold in 1849 in California sent settlers west and moved the center of Population to Greensburg, IndianaGreat Plains settlementSettlers moved across the Great Plains on their way to Oregon Territory. Many of them stopped and settled along the routeRecent growth of the SouthAmericans migrated South primarily for work
34 Changing Center of the U.S. Population Figure 3-16
35 Migration: Key Issue 4: Why Do People Migrate within a Country? Migration between regions of other countriesRussiaImportant to developing and controlling the former Soviet Union by building factories and other work related sites throughout the countryKomsomol: brigades of young volunteers sent to regions to work on projectsGovernment incentives in Brazil and IndonesiaMost people live along the coast of Brazil. To increase the attractiveness of living in the interior, Brazil relocated its capital, Rio de Janeiro, to Brasilia in 1960.People encouraged to live move to islands other than Java.Economic migration within European countriesWith the collapse of the Communist Bloc countries of Southern and Eastern Europe, there has been a steady stream of people relocating to the North and West
37 Migration: Key Issue 4: Why Do People Migrate within a Country? Intraregional migration in the United StatesMigration from rural to urban areasPrimary reason = People are pulled for economic reasons; more job opportunities exist in citiesMigration from urban to suburban areasPrimary reason = People are pulled to the suburban lifestyleMigration from urban to rural areasCounter-urbanization has come about as communication and transportation has evolved. It is possible to live in the country and still work at employment somewhere else.
38 Intraregional Migration in the United States Figure 3-21
39 Up next: Folk and Popular Culture The End.Up next: Folk and Popular Culture