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Migration Elizabeth Reid. Important Terms  Migration – long distance move to a new location  Net Migration – gain or loss in the total population of.

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Presentation on theme: "Migration Elizabeth Reid. Important Terms  Migration – long distance move to a new location  Net Migration – gain or loss in the total population of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration Elizabeth Reid

2 Important Terms  Migration – long distance move to a new location  Net Migration – gain or loss in the total population of an area because of migration  Net in-migration – more people immigrating than leaving  Net out-migration – more people leaving than arriving  Immigration – moving to a location (in-migration)  Emigration – moving from a location (out-migration)  Gross Migration – total number of migrants moving into and out of a place  Migration Stream – pathway from a place of origin to a destination  Migration counterstream – people moving back to the place of origin from the new place  Mobility – ability to move from one place to another (permanently or temporarily)  Circulation – short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis

3 Why do people migrate?

4 Push/Pull Factors  PUSH factors cause people to move out of their location  PULL factors cause people to move into a new location  Three Types: Economic, Cultural, and Environmental

5 Economic Push/Pull Factors  Push factors  Not enough job opportunities  Pull factors  Areas with lots of natural resources  Job opportunities  Places that used to have net out-migration are not hot spots for immigration b/c of the discovery of new natural resources

6 Cultural Push/Pull Factors  Forced internal migration  Slavery  Political instability  Examples  Jews  Deportation of Armenians after WWI  Palestine after establishment of Israel

7 Environmental Push/Pull Factors  Push Factors  Adverse physical conditions  Flooding  Hurricane Katrina  Natural Disaster  Japanese earthquake  Drought  Northern Africa  Pull factors  Attractive locations  Alps, Rocky Mountains, Mediterranean coast of France  Climate  Arizona and Florida  People can live anywhere due to improved technology

8 Intervening Obstacles  Where migrants go is not always their desired destination – blocked by intervening obstacles  In the past, mainly environmental obstacles  Transportation on horse, boat, or foot  Today, political issues are more the obstacles  Passports and documentation

9 Types of Migration Voluntary Migration  Choice to move  Usually due to job opportunities, family links, unemployment conditions, high wage differentials, etc  Pushed from land  Internally Displaced Person (IDP)  People who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of global conflict or human rights abuse Forced Migration  Internal Migration  Movement within a country  Interregional  Movement from one region to another within the same country  Today principally rural to urban migration  Intraregional  Movement within one region  International Migration  Permanent movement from one country to another

10 Historical Internal Migration: US  1 st Wave: Westward Settlement  Manifest Destiny  Rural-to-urban  2 nd Wave: 1940s-1970s  African Americans migrating from the rural South  3 rd Wave: Cold War Jobs  Emergence of Subelt  Migration from rural to urban areas began in the 1800s  Most moving for economic opportunities

11 Urban to Suburban Migration  Migration from cities to suburbs in developed countries  Related to change in lifestyle (better schools, safer neighborhood)  Migration from urban to rural areas – late 20 th century  Counterurbanization: net migration from urban to rural areas  Less hectic life, new technology

12 Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration  19 th century – used data from England to outline a series of “laws” explaining patterns of migration  Three categories  Why migrants move  Distance they typically move  Characteristics of migrants  Migration selectivity  Evaluate how likely someone is to migrate based on personal, social, and economic factors  Most long distance migrants are male  Most long distance migrants are young adults  Migration impacted by push/pull factors  Economic factors are main cause of migration  Long distance migrants go to centers of commerce and industry  Urban residents are less migratory

13 Gravity Model  Larger places attract more migrants than smaller places  Closer places attract more migrants than distant places  Limitations  Does not factor selectivity factors (age and education)  Human behavior doesn’t always fit predicted patterns

14 Migration Transition Model  Identified by Wilbur Zelinsky  Change in migration patterns in a society that results from social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition  Stage 1  High CBR/CDR  Daily/seasonal mobility in search of food – internal migration  Stage 2  High CBR/dropping CDR  Overtaxing resources, can’t push out immigrants  Migration result of technological change  International migration  Some interregional  Stage 3  Slowing growth rates  Social change – fewer children  Destinations for international migrants  Stage 4  Less emigration, more intraregional migration

15 Migration Patterns

16 Eras of US Immigration  Era I: colonial immigration (1600s-1776)  From Africa and Europe  Africa: slaves forced to migrate  European: voluntary to escape harsh economic conditions and persecution  Era II: 19 th Century from Europe  40 million pulled by economic opportunity  Mainly from Germany, Italy, UK, Ireland, and Russia  3 surges in second era  1840s-1850s: 4.3 million from Northern and Western Europe  1880s: 500,000 migrants, many from Scandinavia  1900-1914: 2 million, mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe  Era III: 1970s-present  Asian and Latin American immigrants  Pushed by poor home conditions, land shortage, rapid population increase

17 Undocumented Immigration  Legal immigration reached highest level in 20 th century  More people want to enter than allowed (undocumented immigrants) – 11.9 mil in 2008  Creates conflict over jobs and taxes  Cluster in California and New York Metro Area  Chain Migration: migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there  South and West have rapid job growth

18 Immigration Policies  US Quota Laws  1921 and 1924, discriminated against non- Europeans  Current Global Quota: 620,000 with a 7% max from one country Issues  Brain Drain: large scale emigration of talented people  Temporary Migration for Work  Time Contract Workers: recruited for a fixed period to work in mines or on plantations  Many stayed when contract expired  Guest Workers: sending workers abroad to lessen local unemployment and help home countries

19 Economic Migrants/Refugees  Difficult to distinguish between economic migrants and refugees fleeing government persecution (Cuba and Haiti)  Economic migrants not admitted unless they have special skills or a close relative – Refugees have priority  Cubans regarded as political refugees since 1959  Refugees: People who have ben forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution  People who cross national boundaries to seek safety asylum

20 Review Game! Gravity Model Chain Migration Job opportunities Interregional Migration Wilbur Zelinsky Quota Laws Brain Drain Emigration Internally Displaced Person (IDP) Migration Selectivity Ravenstein Circulation Intervening Obstacles Guest Workers

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