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Migration Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Migration Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration Chapter 3

2 Push and Pull Factors Push factors are things that push people away from their current place Pull factors are things that pull people to new places E.G. Ravenstein’s theory outlines 11 laws (rules) to geographic migration. The 11 laws can be divided into 3 main reasons for migration (Economic, Cultural, and Environmental)

3 Why People Migrate Economic Cultural Environmental
New job opportunities Valuable natural resources Economic attractiveness Highest number of migrants Forced migration-slavery and political instability Boundaries create forced international migration Refugees 2 largest groups of refugees- Palestinians and Afghans Freedom can be a pull factor (Fall of Communism) Physically attractive places Pushed from hazardous places Attractive environments like mountains, sea sides, warm climates Health conditions Pushed by adverse physical conditions Too much water or too little water

4 Intervening Obstacles
In the past, obstacles have been transportation issues Other physical obstacles like mountains and water have hindered migration Today’s migrants face obstacles not from physical or transportation issues, but cannot move due to lack of passports or legal documentation. All countries require some sort of legal documents to allow you into their country

5 Distance of Migration Ravenstein’s Theory
International Migration Internal Migration Permanent move to another country Very traumatic, done for extreme conditions or reasons Voluntary migration – chosen to migrate Forced migration- forced to move due to fear and possible death Wilbur Zelinsky compared migration patterns to the DTM and found similar data (see chart handout) Stages of the DTM correspond with migration patterns Permanent move within same country Less traumatic move, therefore more people migrate internally Interregional migration is moving to another region within a country Intraregional migration is moving within the same region within a country Historically most moves have been rural to urban migration But in recent years the trend has reversed to urban to environmentally attractive rural areas (Suburbs)

6 Characteristics of Migrants
Mostly male Adults Trend started to change in early 1990s Increasingly more women and children are migrating Less educated Most are from rural areas in Mexico Most work in agriculture

7 Sources and Destinations of Refugees

8 Migration Patterns

9 U.S. Immigration Patterns
1st era- Settlement of colonies and slave trade 400,000 were slaves 2nd era- Europeans migrating to U.S. 40 million to U.S. 3rd era- Latin America and Asia 7 million (Asia) 13 million (Latin America) Immigration Reform and Control Act

10 Latin American and Asian Era
Current wave of migration China, Philippines, India and Vietnam Mexico, Dominican Republic, El Salvador 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act gave documentation to illegal immigrants that entered U.S. Reason for migration remains the same: economic push/pull factors

11 Migration from Latin America to the U.S.
Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of migrants to the U.S., but migrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.

12 Impact of Migration to U.S.
Immigrants today are not entering a growing country (frontier) but a highly settled region where there is job competition Cultural backgrounds travel with immigrants which shape the country Christianity Government and economic structure and colonial conflicts

13 Undocumented Immigration
BCIS estimates that there are 7 million illegals Each year it grows by 350,000 Expired visas or border crossers It is illegal to hire an illegal immigrant Most of the time immigrants are deported back to Mexico if caught…no penalties Texas, Florida, California and New York are the destinations of most migrants

14 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations
Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all U.S. immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.

15 U.S. Quota Laws Established in the 1920’s
Set limits on legal migration Changed in 1965, 1978 to eventual global quotas 480,000 family (chain migration) 120,000 employment immigration Typically only skilled workers are granted visas Brain Drain in countries where they emigrated from

16 Temporary and Time Contract Workers
Temporary workers are called guest workers Temporary workers typically are found in Europe/M.E. and they are from poorer countries like Africa, M.E. ,E. Europe and Asia Guest workers have some rights Time contract workers are used for a fixed period of time then settle in new country once job is completed Best example: Chinese building the U.S. railroads

17 Economic Migrant or Refugee?
Cuba, Haiti and Vietnam Mariel boatlift Cubans were viewed as refugees because Castro was an ally of the Soviet Union Coup created refugees in Haiti Communist North Vietnam Very important to distinguish status

18 Prejudice against migrants
Early European immigrants faced prejudice CA voted to deny immigrants access to public services Kuwait expelled Palestinian guest workers Fiji wanted only Fijians to control government and Indians to run business Anti-immigration is attractive

19 Why do people migrate within a country?
Interregional migration developed U.S. frontier Population centers moved steadily west Interior-1830 Low land prices, canals, steam powered boats Great Plains-1880 Farming improved, steel plows, well drilling South- 1980 Job opportunities, sunbelt

20 Migration between regions of a country Interregional Migration
United States Other Countries Changing center of population The center of population has moved west as our country became settled Transportation helped the interior of the U.S. to be settled (think Gold Rush) Agriculture technology helped the Great Plains become settled Increase in job opportunities in the South caused the growth as well as the climate African American migration Russia Important to develop areas near raw materials Kosomol policy was used to encourage young students to work Brazil Moved capital to Brasilia to promote interior development Indonesia Government program to encourage development of islands and to move people away from Java Europe Southern Italian moving to Northern Italy for jobs (Mezzogiorno)

21 Migration between countries
Russia Needed internal migration to develop industry Komsomol Brazil Moved capital to Brasilia to promote movement Indonesia Gives incentive to move to other islands Europe Economic movement within country India State of Assam

22 Migration within one region Intraregional Migration
Rural-urban migration Most people live in cities today People moved to the city for jobs Urban-suburban migration Current trend of intraregional migration Pulled by the lure of suburban lifestyle Better schools, less crime Migration from metropolitan to nonmetropolitan regions Counterurbanization People wanted to live in the country Increased transportation allows a city worker to live in a rural area

23 Intraregional Migration in the U.S.
Fig. 3-14: Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.

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