2 Push and Pull FactorsPush factors are things that push people away from their current placePull factors are things that pull people to new placesE.G. Ravenstein’s theory outlines 11 laws (rules) to geographic migration.The 11 laws can be divided into 3 main reasons for migration (Economic, Cultural, and Environmental)
3 Why People Migrate Economic Cultural Environmental New job opportunitiesValuable natural resourcesEconomic attractivenessHighest number of migrantsForced migration-slavery and political instabilityBoundaries create forced international migrationRefugees2 largest groups of refugees- Palestinians and AfghansFreedom can be a pull factor (Fall of Communism)Physically attractive placesPushed from hazardous placesAttractive environments like mountains, sea sides, warm climatesHealth conditionsPushed by adverse physical conditionsToo much water or too little water
4 Intervening Obstacles In the past, obstacles have been transportation issuesOther physical obstacles like mountains and water have hindered migrationToday’s migrants face obstacles not from physical or transportation issues, but cannot move due to lack of passports or legal documentation.All countries require some sort of legal documents to allow you into their country
5 Distance of Migration Ravenstein’s Theory International MigrationInternal MigrationPermanent move to another countryVery traumatic, done for extreme conditions or reasonsVoluntary migration – chosen to migrateForced migration- forced to move due to fear and possible deathWilbur Zelinsky compared migration patterns to the DTM and found similar data (see chart handout)Stages of the DTM correspond with migration patternsPermanent move within same countryLess traumatic move, therefore more people migrate internallyInterregional migration is moving to another region within a countryIntraregional migration is moving within the same region within a countryHistorically most moves have been rural to urban migrationBut in recent years the trend has reversed to urban to environmentally attractive rural areas (Suburbs)
6 Characteristics of Migrants Mostly maleAdultsTrend started to change in early 1990sIncreasingly more women and children are migratingLess educatedMost are from rural areas in MexicoMost work in agriculture
9 U.S. Immigration Patterns 1st era- Settlement of colonies and slave trade400,000 were slaves2nd era- Europeans migrating to U.S.40 million to U.S.3rd era- Latin America and Asia7 million (Asia) 13 million (Latin America)Immigration Reform and Control Act
10 Latin American and Asian Era Current wave of migrationChina, Philippines, India and VietnamMexico, Dominican Republic, El Salvador1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act gave documentation to illegal immigrants that entered U.S.Reason for migration remains the same: economic push/pull factors
11 Migration from Latin America to the U.S. Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of migrants to the U.S., but migrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.
12 Impact of Migration to U.S. Immigrants today are not entering a growing country (frontier) but a highly settled region where there is job competitionCultural backgrounds travel with immigrants which shape the countryChristianityGovernment and economic structure and colonial conflicts
13 Undocumented Immigration BCIS estimates that there are 7 million illegalsEach year it grows by 350,000Expired visas or border crossersIt is illegal to hire an illegal immigrantMost of the time immigrants are deported back to Mexico if caught…no penaltiesTexas, Florida, California and New York are the destinations of most migrants
14 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all U.S. immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
15 U.S. Quota Laws Established in the 1920’s Set limits on legal migrationChanged in 1965, 1978 to eventual global quotas480,000 family (chain migration) 120,000 employment immigrationTypically only skilled workers are granted visasBrain Drain in countries where they emigrated from
16 Temporary and Time Contract Workers Temporary workers are called guest workersTemporary workers typically are found in Europe/M.E. and they are from poorer countries like Africa, M.E. ,E. Europe and AsiaGuest workers have some rightsTime contract workers are used for a fixed period of time then settle in new country once job is completedBest example: Chinese building the U.S. railroads
17 Economic Migrant or Refugee? Cuba, Haiti and VietnamMariel boatliftCubans were viewed as refugees because Castro was an ally of the Soviet UnionCoup created refugees in HaitiCommunist North VietnamVery important to distinguish status
18 Prejudice against migrants Early European immigrants faced prejudiceCA voted to deny immigrants access to public servicesKuwait expelled Palestinian guest workersFiji wanted only Fijians to control government and Indians to run businessAnti-immigration is attractive
19 Why do people migrate within a country? Interregional migration developed U.S. frontierPopulation centers moved steadily westInterior-1830Low land prices, canals, steam powered boatsGreat Plains-1880Farming improved, steel plows, well drillingSouth- 1980Job opportunities, sunbelt
20 Migration between regions of a country Interregional Migration United StatesOther CountriesChanging center of populationThe center of population has moved west as our country became settledTransportation helped the interior of the U.S. to be settled (think Gold Rush)Agriculture technology helped the Great Plains become settledIncrease in job opportunities in the South caused the growth as well as the climateAfrican American migrationRussiaImportant to develop areas near raw materialsKosomol policy was used to encourage young students to workBrazilMoved capital to Brasilia to promote interior developmentIndonesiaGovernment program to encourage development of islands and to move people away from JavaEuropeSouthern Italian moving to Northern Italy for jobs (Mezzogiorno)
21 Migration between countries RussiaNeeded internal migration to develop industryKomsomolBrazilMoved capital to Brasilia to promote movementIndonesiaGives incentive to move to other islandsEuropeEconomic movement within countryIndiaState of Assam
22 Migration within one region Intraregional Migration Rural-urban migrationMost people live in cities todayPeople moved to the city for jobsUrban-suburban migrationCurrent trend of intraregional migrationPulled by the lure of suburban lifestyleBetter schools, less crimeMigration from metropolitan to nonmetropolitan regionsCounterurbanizationPeople wanted to live in the countryIncreased transportation allows a city worker to live in a rural area
23 Intraregional Migration in the U.S. Fig. 3-14: Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.