Presentation on theme: "Principles of Ecology You will describe ecology and the work of ecologists. You will identify important aspects of an organism’s environment You will trace."— Presentation transcript:
1 Ecology: the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment
2 Principles of EcologyYou will describe ecology and the work of ecologists.You will identify important aspects of an organism’s environmentYou will trace the flow of energy and nutrients in the living and nonliving worlds.
3 Organisms and their Environment Section Objectives:Distinguish between the biotic and abiotic factors in the environmentCompare the different levels of biological organization and living relationships important in ecologyExplain the difference between a niche and a habitat.
4 Biosphere the portion of Earth that supports living things. Living things are affected by both the physical or nonliving environment and by other living things.
5 Abiotic and Biotic factors Abiotic factors ~ The nonliving parts of an organism’s environmentExamples: air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil.often determine which species survive in a particular environmentbiotic factors ~ All the living organisms that inhabit an environmentAll organisms depend on others directly or indirectly for food, shelter, reproduction or protection
6 Levels of Organization Organism~ An individual living thing that is made of cells, uses energy, reproduces, responds, grows, and develops2. Population ~ a group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area at the same time; competition occurs
7 Levels of Organization II 3. Biological community~made up of interacting populations in a certain area at a certain time.~A change in one population in a community may cause changes in the other populations.4. Ecosystem ~ Populations of plants and animals that interact with each other in a given area and with the abiotic components of that area.
8 Organisms in Ecosystems A habitat is the place where an organism lives out its life.~ Habitats can change due to both natural and human causesniche is the role or position a species has in its environment—how it meets its specific needs for food and shelter, how and where it survives, and where it reproduces in its environment.~includes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of its habitat.It is thought that two species can’t exist for long in the same community if their niches are the same.
9 SymbiosisThe relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between organisms of different speciesThree kinds of symbiosis are: mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
10 Symbiosis II 1.Mutualism ~ both species benefit 2. Commensalism ~one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited.
11 Symbiosis III3. Parasitism ~ a member of one species derives benefit at the expense of another species (the host) :usually harm but don’t kill hostPredators seek out and eat other organisms.animals that predators eat are called prey.
12 2.2: Nutrition and Energy Flow Section ObjectivesCompare how organisms satisfy their nutritional needs.Trace the path of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
13 How organisms obtain energy The ultimate source of the energy for life is the sun.The producers: Autotrophs~ An organism that uses light energy or energy stored in chemical compounds to make energy-rich compounds (Plants-photosynthesis
14 How organisms obtain energy II The consumers: Heterotrophs ~ An organism that cannot make its own food and feeds on other organismsdepend on autotrophs for nutrients and energy.
15 Heterotrophs display a variety of feeding relationships. Herbivore ~ feeds only on plantsCarnivores ~ kill and eat only other animalsOmnivores ~eat both plants & animals
16 Heterotrophs display a variety of feeding relationships. II Scavengers eat animals that have already diedDecomposers break down the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be more easily absorbed.
17 Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Food chains: the stepwise flow of energy and nutrients through an ecosystem.from plants (producers)to herbivores (primary consumers)to carnivores (secondary and higher-level consumersberries → mice → black bear
18 Trophic levels represent links in the chain Each organism in a food chain represents a feeding step, or trophic level, in the passage of energy and materials.
19 Food webs network of interconnecting food chains It is a more realistic view of the trophic structure of an ecosystem than a food chain
20 Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids show how energy flows through an ecosystem.illustrates that the amount of available energy decreases at each succeeding trophic level.The total energy transfer from one trophic level to the next is only about ten percent because organisms fail to capture and eat all the food energy available at the trophic level below them.Biomass is the total weight of living matter at each trophic level