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CH. 1 The Sociological Perspective.

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1 CH. 1 The Sociological Perspective

2 Seeing the Broader Social Context
Sociology: The scientific study of society and human behavior; structure. How Groups Influence People Maintains a group focus. Emphasizes patterned social relationships between members. How People are Influenced by Their Society Uses social factors to explain human social behavior. People Who Share a Culture People Who Share a Territory

3 Jobs Income Education Gender Age Race/Ethnicity
Social Location - Corners in Life Jobs Income Education Gender Age Race/Ethnicity

4 C. Wright Mills - History and Biography The Sociological Imagination:
History - Location in Broad Stream of Events Biography - Individual’s Specific Experiences

5 The Global Context and the Local
The Global Village Instant Communication Sociology Studies both the Global Network and Our Unique Experiences

6 Sociology and the Other Sciences
The Natural Sciences Explain and Predict Events in Natural Environment The Social Sciences Examine Human Relationships

7 Sociology and the Other Sciences
Anthropology Studies Culture Economics Studies the Production and Distribution of Goods and Services Political Science Studies How People Govern Themselves

8 Sociology and the Other Sciences
Psychology The Study of Processes Within Individuals Sociology Similarities to Other Disciplines

9 The Goal of Science Explain Why Something Happens Make Generalizations
Look for Patterns Predict What will Happen Move Beyond Common Sense

10 Risks of Sociology Nooks and Crannies People Prefer Hidden
People Feel Threatened by Information

11 Origins of Sociology Tradition vs. Science The Industrial Revolution
Grew Out of Social Upheaval Imperialism of the Time Rise of the Scientific Method

12 Auguste Comte and Positivism
Applying the Scientific Method to Social World Coined the Term “Sociology” “Armchair Philosophy”

13 Herbert Spencer - Social Darwinism
Second Founder of Sociology Lower and Higher Forms of Society Coined Phrase “Survival of the Fittest”

14 Karl Marx and Class Conflict
Engine of Human History is Class Conflict The Bourgeoisie vs. The Proletariat Marxism Not the Same as Communism

15 Durkheim and Social Integration
Got Sociology Recognized as Separate Discipline Studied How Social Forces Affect Behavior Identified “Social Integration” - Degree to Which People are Tied to Social Group

16 Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic
Religion and the Origin of Capitalism Religion is Central Force in Social Change Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism

17 Sociology in North America
First Took Root in 1890 at University of Kansas Spread Rapidly in Next 20 Years Not at Harvard until 1930 American Journal of Sociology 1895

18 Sexism in Early Sociology
Attitudes of the Time 1800s Sex Roles Rigidly Defined Few People Educated Beyond Basics Harriet Martineau Published Society in America Before Durkheim and Weber Were Born Her Work was Ignored

19 Racism at the Time: W.E.B Du Bois
B.A. from Fisk University First Harvard Ph.D. for African American Published a Book Each Year from Neglected by Sociologist Until Recently

20 Jane Addams: Sociologist and Social Reformer
Member of American Sociological Society from Start Came from Background of Wealth and Privilege Co-Founded Hull House Co-Founded American Civil Liberties Union

21 Values in Sociological Research
Sociology Should be Value-Free Sociology Should be Objective Research Should Involve Replication Goals and Uses of Sociology Change or just explore? Applied sociology

22 Theoretical Perspectives
Symbolic Interactionism - How People Use Symbols in Everyday Life Applying Symbolic Interactionism - Changing the Meaning of Symbols Affects Expectations

23 Functional Analysis Society is a Whole Unit Made Up of Interrelated Parts that Work Together Functionalism, Structural Functionalism Robert Merton: Functions Manifest Latent Dysfunctions

24 Conflict Theory Karl Marx and Conflict Theory Conflict Theory Today
Feminists and Conflict Theory Applying Conflict Theory

25 Levels of Analysis Functionalists and Conflict Theorists - Macro Level
Symbolic Interactionists - Micro Level Microsociology – interest in the interaction of people “within” social structures; investigates relationships within groups Macrosociology – interest in the “intersection” of social structures; focuses on groups as a whole

26 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology

27 Theoretical Criticisms
Theory Criticisms Functionalism Tends to legitimize the status quo. Neglects social change. Assumes that society benefits everyone. Conflict Theory Overlooks forces of stability in society. Assumes that only the ruling class benefits from the way society operates. Assumes the working class does not know it is subordinate. Symbolic Interaction Sometimes fails to take the larger picture into account. Does not consider the impact of social forces and/or social structures.

28 Trends Shaping the Future
Sociology Full Circle: Reform vs. Research Diversity of Orientations Applied/Public Sociology Globalization

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