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The Sociological Perspective Chapter 1. Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-2 Sociology & the Other Sciences The Natural Sciences Biology Geology.

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Presentation on theme: "The Sociological Perspective Chapter 1. Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-2 Sociology & the Other Sciences The Natural Sciences Biology Geology."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sociological Perspective Chapter 1

2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-2 Sociology & the Other Sciences The Natural Sciences Biology Geology Chemistry Physics The Social Sciences Political Science Economics Anthropology Psychology Sociology

3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-3 The Goals of Science Why Something Happens Making Generalizations Making Predictions

4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-4 The Development of Sociology The Scientific Method Key Figures Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Positivism Karl Marx (1818-1883) Class conflict Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) Social integration & suicide Max Weber (1864-1920) Religion & capitalism

5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-5 The Role of Values in Research “value-free” “objectivity” “replication”

6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-6 The Debate over Values

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-7 Verstehen & Social Facts Weber and Verstehen “to understand” subjective meanings Durkheim and Social Facts “social facts”: patterns of behaviour that characterize a social group.

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-8 Sexism in Early Sociology The “Four Ks”: Kirche, Kuchen, Kinder, und Kleider (church, cooking, children, and clothes) Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) Society in America Translator of Comte

9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-9 Early Sociology in North America Canada Quebec: European & French influence English Canada British tradition: University of Toronto U. S. tradition: McGill University United States University of Chicago George Herbert Mead

10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-10 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Symbolic Interactionism Functional Analysis (AKA Functionalism & Structural Functionalism) Conflict Theory Feminist Theory Postmodernism Queer Theory Critical Race Theory

11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-11 Symbolic Interactionism Symbols (things to which we attach meaning) as the basis of social life Key Figures Charles Horton Cooley (1864- 1929) George Herbert Mead (1863- 1931)

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-12 Functional Analysis Society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together Key Figures Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) Robert Merton (1910-2003)

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-13 Conflict Theory Class Struggle as the basis of social life Bourgeoisie & Proletariat Key Figures Karl Marx (1818-1883) Ralf Dahrendorf (1929 - ) Lewis Coser (1913 - )

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-14 Feminist Theories Marxist Feminist Theories Class & economic position Liberal Feminist Theories Legal restraints & customs Radical Feminist Theories Patriarchy Commonalities of Feminist Theories

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-15 Postmodernism Modernity: Max Weber (1864-1920) Change, collective action, & progress Postmodernity: C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) A rejection of modernity Cultural Diversity Images & Symbols

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-16 Queer Theory Judith Butler: Gender Trouble Fluidity of gender identities Gayle Rubin: “Thinking Sex” Intolerance of sexual differences Fear of sex Challenges All Notions of Fixed Identity

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-17 Critical Race Theory Derrick Bell Post–Civil Rights Era African – American Legal Thought A Multi-discipline Examination of: The social construction of race & race identity The reality of racial discrimination

18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-18 Levels of Analysis Macro-Level Analysis Conflict theory Functionalist theory Micro-Level Analysis Symbolic interactionism Queer theory Macro- & Micro-Level analyses Feminist theory Postmodernism

19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-19 Applied & Clinical Sociology The Three Phases of Research 1. Reform 2. Establish sociology as a respected field of knowledge 3. Merging sociological knowledge and practical work

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1-20 Comparing Basic & Applied Sociology


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