3 Nurses, Always there For You: United Againat Violence (ICN, 2001)
4 What is violence?The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development or deprivation. (WHO, 2000)
7 Classification of Violence Youth ViolenceChild MaltreatmentViolence Against Women byIntimate PartnersElder Abuse
8 Sexual ViolenceSelf-directed ViolenceCollective ViolenceOrganized ViolenceThe inter-human infliction of significant, avoidable pain and suffering by an Organized group according to a declared or implied strategy and/or system of
9 ideas and attitudes, ……. . Organized violence includes ‘torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’ ……. . Imprisonment without trial, mock executions, hostage-taking or any other form of violent deprivation of liberty. (WHO, 1980, Geuns, 1987)The definition includes government repression and also terrorist group violence.
10 Estimates of Mortality = 2.3 million people died from Violence How big is the problem of Violence?Estimates of Mortality1998= 2.3 million people died from Violence42% (Self-directed)32% (Homicides-Interpersonal)26% (War-related)
11 Tip of the iceberg From National Surveys Physical assaults by intimate partners (lifetime estimates)5.1 in Philippines9.5 in Paraguay22.1 in USA.29.0 in Canada34.4 in Egypt
12 Tip of the icebergLifetime estimates of sexual assault among women living in cities or provinces around the world:in Torontoin Leon, Nicaraguain North Londonin One province in Zimbabwe
13 22% among boys (grade 7) in Sweden Tip of the icebergRates of physical fighting in the past year among adolescent males rang from:22% among boys (grade 7) in Sweden44% of boys (grades 9-12) in USA.76% among boys (grades 8-10) in Jerusalem
14 Injury Surveillance Report on Assaults in Thailand, 1991 (กองระบาด, 2543) Physical Assault Injury = 11, 367 cases(Death = 334 cases)(Data gathered from 10 hospitals)
16 Violence against women The United Nations Declaration on theElimination of ViolenceAgainst Women. “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical,sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty; whether occurring in public or in private life.”(UN General Assembly 1993)
17 4 million/year of women in USA were abused/battered 44% of women (5.4 million) age in Thailand8 million in age group(Archavanitkul et al., 2001)
18 Violence against women is gender-based violence ScopeDowry - related, female genital mutilation, Marital rape, battering, homicide.Domestic Violence:Violence in Public:Sexual assault, harassment, trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation, Pornography.Organized Violence:Unfair social treatment , sex discrimination/ gender bias, ignore to women’s right violence perpetrator or condoned by the state.
19 Root of violence against women - Power inequalities b/w women and men- Patriarchal society
20 Gender role Socialization Gender role stereotype Gender BiasGender role SocializationGender role stereotypeRapeMythsWomen sexualityMen sexuality
21 Social condemn / stigma What will victim / survivor of violence face?BlameGuiltPhysical / Psychological Health ProblemsSocial condemn / stigma
22 Consequence of violence - Physical injures / problems- Psychological problems : Post traumaticnsyndrome, Suicide- Psychosomatic disorder- Social stigma
23 What should nurses have in dealing with violence survivals? - Knowledge- Positive attitude- No blame, understanding- Empathy- Strict confidentiality- Respect
25 Vision of nurse on violence issues. - nurse’s role in development of health services forViolence survivals- nurse’s role in development of body of knowledgeon violence against women.- Nurse and self development for providing effectivecare for any form of violence survival.- Nurse and violence prevention in Thai society.